First United Front - Wikipedia
of American scholars of United States-China relations in the period of. and endeavor to attempts to show that the CCP became stronger than the Kuomintang. (the KMT) by aligning itself .. Two quotations will serve to point up the. Chiang Kai-shek and his nationalist Kuomintang party, controlled a In the south and east, rival warlords maintained an uneasy relationship with Chiang's Mitter quotes a complaint from a British diplomat at Chiang's. United Front, in modern Chinese history, either of two coalitions between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang [KMT]).
The Jiangxi Soviet[ edit ] Main article: InMao claimed a need to eliminate alleged KMT spies and Anti-Bolsheviks operating inside the Jiangxi Soviet and began an ideological campaign featuring torture and guilt by association, in order to eliminate his enemies. The campaign continued until the end ofkilling approximately 70, people and reducing the size of the Red Army from 40, to less than 10, The de facto leader of the party at the time, Zhou Enlaioriginally supported Mao's purges as necessary to eliminate KMT spies.
After Zhou arrived in Jiangxi in Decemberhe criticized Mao's campaigns for being directed more against anti-Maoists than legitimate threats to the Party, for the campaign's general senselessness, and for the widespread use of torture to extract confessions.
Duringfollowing Zhou's efforts to end Mao's ideological persecutions, the campaigns gradually subsided. Zhou's support was not enough, and Mao was demoted to being a figurehead in the Soviet government, until he regained his position later, during the Long March.
Zhou at this time, apparently with strong support from Party and military colleagues, reorganized and standardized the Red Army. In Septemberthe National Revolutionary Army under Chiang Kai-shek eventually completely encircled Jiangxi, with the advice and tactical assistance of his German adviser, Hans von Seeckt.
Mao was replaced by Zhou Enlai as leader of the military commission. Between January and Marchthe Nationalists advanced slowly.
Bo and Braun continued to employ orthodox military tactics, resulting in a series of Kuomintang advances and heavy Communist casualties. When Ruijin became exposed to KMT attack, Party leaders faced the choice of either remaining and perishing or of abandoning the base area and attempting to break through the enemy encirclement.
The Communist leadership decided on a strategic retreat to regroup with other Communist units, and to avoid annihilation. The original plan was to link up with the Second Red Army commanded by He Longthought to be in Hubei to the west and north. Communications between divided groups of the Red Army had been disrupted by the Kuomintang campaign. During the planning to evacuate Jiangxi, the First Red Army was unaware that these other Communist forces were also retreating westward.
The Long March[ edit ] Escape from Jiangxi[ edit ] Since the Central Base Area could not be held, the Standing Committee appointed Bo responsible for politicsBraun responsible for military strategyand Zhou responsible for the implementation of military planning to organize the evacuation.
Since the enemy was close, Zhou, in charge of logistics, made his plans in complete secrecy. It was not disclosed who was to leave or when: It is not known what criteria were used to determine who would stay and who would go, but 16, troops and some of the Communists' most notable commanders at the time including Xiang YingChen YiTan Zhenlinand Qu Qiubai were left to form a rear guard, to divert the main force of Nationalist troops from noticing, and preventing, the general withdrawal.
China's War with Japan, 1937-1945: The Struggle for Survival by Rana Mitter – review
Although Fang Zhimin's troops were soon destroyed, these movements surprised the Kuomintang, who were numerically superior to the Communists at the time and did not expect an attack on their fortified perimeter. The early troop movements were actually a diversion to allow the retreat of more important leaders from Jiangxi. On October 16,a force of aboutsoldiers and civilians under Bo Gu and Otto Braun attacked the line of Kuomintang positions near Yudu.
More than 86, troops, 11, administrative personnel and thousands of civilian porters actually completed the breakout; the remainder, largely wounded or ill soldiers, continued to fight a delaying action after the main force had left, and then dispersed into the countryside.
The withdrawal began in early October Zhou's intelligence agents were successful in identifying a large section of Chiang's blockhouse lines that were manned by troops under General Chen Jitanga Guangdong warlord who Zhou identified as being likely to prefer preserving the strength of his troops over fighting.
Zhou sent Pan Hannian to negotiate for safe passage with General Chen, who subsequently allowed the Red Army to pass through the territory that he controlled without fighting.
After passing through three of the four blockhouse fortifications needed to escape Chiang's encirclement, the Red Army was finally intercepted by regular Nationalist troops, and suffered heavy casualties. Of the 86, Communists who attempted to break out of Jiangxi with the First Red Army, only 36, successfully escaped.
Due to the low morale within the Red Army at the time, it is not possible to know what proportion of these losses were due to military casualties, and which proportion were due to desertion. The conditions of the Red Army's forced withdrawal demoralized some Communist leaders particularly Bo Gu and Otto Braunbut Zhou remained calm and retained his command.
Shanghai massacre - Wikipedia
Determining the direction of the Red Army[ edit ] After escaping Chiang's encirclement, it was obvious to Party leaders that Chiang was intent on intercepting what remained of the Red Army in Hunan, and the direction of the Red Army's movements had to be reconsidered. The plan to rendezvous and join He Long's army in Hunan had become too risky. Mao suggested to Zhou that the Red Army change direction, towards Guizhouwhere Mao expected enemy defenses to be weak.
Zhou endorsed Mao's proposal, encouraging other leaders to overrule the objections of Bo and Braun. Another dispute of the direction of the Red Army occurred soon after, once the Red Army reached Lipingin the mountains of southeast Guizhou. Braun believed that they should travel to eastern Guizhou, but Mao wanted to go to western Guizhou, where he expected KMT forces to be lighter and which borders Sichuanand to establish a base area there. In a meeting to decide the army's direction, Zhou sided with Mao, making Braun "fly into a rage because he was overruled in the debate.
Bo and Braun again insisted the Red Army move back to western Hunan to join other Communist troops in the area, but their prestige had considerably declined by that point, and their suggestion was rejected.
Even Zhou had become impatient, and proposed a new rule which was put into effect immediately: The movement passed, clearly depriving Braun of the right to direct military affairs. As Mao had predicted, the city was weakly defended, and was too far from Nationalist forces to be under immediate threat of attack. Zunyi Conference The Communists' Zunyi Conference lasted from January 15—17,and resulted in a reshuffling of the Party politburo. Zhou intended the conference to draw lessons from the Red Army's past failures, and to develop strategies for the future.
Much of the discussion revolved around whether the defeats of the Red Army were due to unavoidable circumstances, or inadequacies of leadership. Bo Gu, the first speaker, attributed the Red Army's losses to "objective" causes, particularly the enemy's overwhelming numerical superiority, and poor coordination of Communist forces. Braun's interpreter, Wu Xiuquanlater recalled that Bo's arguments did not impress his audience, and that Bo came across as someone attempting to avoid responsibility.
Zhou blamed the Red Army's failures on poor decisions at the leadership level, and blamed himself as one of the three people most responsible."I Have a Gun" (我有一把枪) - Chinese Kuomintang Song
Zhou's willingness to accept responsibility was well received. Zhang Wentianbasing many of his conclusions on recent discussions with Mao, attacked Bo and Braun directly, criticizing them for numerous strategic and tactical errors. With Zhou's explicit backing, Mao won over the meeting.
Seventeen of the meeting's twenty participants the exceptions being Bo, Braun, and He Kequan argued in his favor. Zhou was held partially responsible for the Red Army's defeat, but was retained at the top level of Party leadership because of his differences with Bo and Braun at Ningdu, his successful tactics in defeating Chiang's fourth Encirclement Campaign, and his resolute support of Mao. Mao was passed over for the position of General Secretary by Zhang Wentianbut gained enough influence to be elected one of three members of Military Affairs Commission.
The other two members were Zhou Enlaiwho retained his position as Director of the Commission, and Wang Jiaxiangwhose support Mao had enlisted earlier. Wang was in charge of Party affairs. Mao's forces spent the next several months maneuvering to avoid direct confrontation with hostile forces, but still attempting to move north to join Zhang Guotao 's Fourth Red Army.
He feigned an attack to this city when Chiang was visiting. Chiang ordered his army in Kunming to move eastward to save Guiyang, but the Red Army turned towards Kunming immediately and entered Yunnan, where the Yangtze River was lightly guarded. Chiang was also particularly committed to Sun's idea of "political tutelage.
Using this ideology, Chiang built himself into the dictator of the Republic of China, both in the Chinese mainland and when the national government was relocated to Taiwan.
Chiang had to defeat three separate warlords and two independent armies. Chiang, with Soviet supplies, conquered the southern half of China in nine months. Having taken Nanking in March, Chiang halted his campaign and prepared a violent break with Wang and his communist allies.
Wang finally surrendered his power to Chiang. The city was the internationally recognized capital, though previously controlled by warlords. This event allowed the KMT to receive widespread diplomatic recognition in the same year. The capital was moved from Peking to Nanking, the original capital of the Ming Dynastyand thus a symbolic purge of the final Qing elements.
This period of KMT rule in China between and was relatively stable and prosperous and is still known as the Nanjing decade. After the Northern Expedition inthe Nationalist government under the KMT declared that China had been exploited for decades under unequal treaties signed between the foreign powers and the Qing Dynasty.
The KMT government demanded that the foreign powers renegotiate the treaties on equal terms. However, the KMT under Chiang's leadership aimed at establishing a centralized one-party state with one ideology.
This was even more evident following Sun's elevation into a cult figure after his death. The control by one single party began the period of "political tutelage," whereby the party was to lead the government while instructing the people on how to participate in a democratic system. The topic of reorganizing the army, brought up at a military conference insparked the Central Plains War.
- United Front
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The cliques, some of them former warlords, demanded to retain their army and political power within their own territories. Although Chiang finally won the war, the conflicts among the cliques would have a devastating effect on the survival of the KMT. Although the Second Sino-Japanese War officially broke out inJapanese aggression started in when they staged the Mukden Incident and occupied Manchuria.
Chiang was alarmed by the expansion of the communist influence. He believed that in order to fight against foreign aggression, the KMT must solve its internal conflicts first, so he started his second attempt to exterminate CPC members in With the advice from German military advisors, the KMT forced the Communists to withdraw from their bases in southern and central China into the mountains in a massive military retreat known as the Long March.
The KMT was also known to have used terror tactics against suspected communists, through the utilization of a secret police force, who were employed to maintain surveillance on suspected communists and political opponents. Fitzgerald describes China under the rule of the KMT thus: However, in many situations the alliance was in name only; after a brief period of cooperation, the armies began to fight the Japanese separately, rather than as coordinated allies.
While the KMT army received heavy casualties fighting the Japanese, the CPC expanded its territory by guerrilla tactics within Japanese occupied regions, leading some[ who? The Soviet Union declared war on Japan just before they surrendered and occupied Manchuriathe north eastern part of China. First, the KMT reduced troop levels precipitously after the Japanese surrender, leaving large numbers of able-bodied, trained fighting men who became unemployed and disgruntled with the KMT as prime recruits for PLA.
Second, the KMT government proved thoroughly unable to manage the economy, allowing hyperinflation to result. Among the most despised and ineffective efforts it undertook to contain inflation was the conversion to the gold standard for the national treasury and the Gold Standard Scrip in Augustoutlawing private ownership of gold, silver and foreign exchange, collecting all such precious metals and foreign exchange from the people and issuing the Gold Standard Scrip in exchange.
As most farmland in the north were under CPC's control, the cities governed by the KMT lacked food supply and this added to the hyperinflation.
The new scrip became worthless in only ten months and greatly reinforced the nationwide perception of the KMT as a corrupt or at best inept entity. Third, Chiang Kai-shek ordered his forces to defend the urbanized cities. This decision gave CPC a chance to move freely through the countryside. However, with the country suffering from hyperinflationwidespread corruption and other economic ills, the KMT continued to lose popular support.
Some leading officials and military leaders of the KMT hoarded material, armament and military-aid funding provided by the US. This became an issue which proved to be a hindrance of its relationship with US government.