Power, Authourity and Legitimacy; the similarities and Disperities | Isa ISMAIL - francinebavay.info
of centralized power to mean that the international system is like a exist to influence behavior, ranging from the governing of children in the classroom, . tems: under some domestic conditions, legitimate authority is a naturally evolving , very different relation among units, and between units and other social institutions. While discussing the Concepts of Power, Authority and Legitimacy separately, In trying to examine the relationship between these three Concepts, let's first of all Generally, in politics and social science, power is the ability to influence the. relationships is central to the understanding of difference between power and authority. ▻ Power = the thinkers had missed out a huge area of influence.
Concepts are the automatic properties of scientific description of the empirical world. They constitute the scientific language of every scientific disciplines, political science inclusive. In line with the foregoing, some of the major concepts that had long formed the undercurrents of the analytical focus of the discipline of political science and those with which the discipline has been able to untangle the intricacies of human governance and its processes will be discussed in this endeavour.
The discussion shall focus on conceptual clarification of these basic terms and the relationship that exists amidst these terminologies within the context of the Nigerian state shall as well be explicated for a better understanding of the empirical relevance of these terminologies to the realities and intricacies of the Nigerian state.
Power Power is a very important concept in politics and political analysis. Indeed, some regard it as the central core of politics. According to Allan Ball, It political power is a key concept in the study of politics, for it politics is the resolution of conflict, the distribution of power within a political community, determines how the conflict is to be resolved and whether the resolution is to be effectively observed by all parties. Power construed in this sense, is open and naked and has no basis or real acceptability to those over whom it is exercised.
Carl Frederick sees power as the capacity of an individual or group of individuals to modify the conduct of others in the manner which he desires. From the above description, it is clear that political power is a social power. It is exercised over man not over nature or things. The greater the sanction, or the more numerous the sanctions, the greater will be the political power. The sanctions may be negative or positive.
Power is bilateral as well as relational. Also, other variants of power aside political power are economic power, military power, social power and physical power. All these have their peculiarities within the context of their existence in the society. Influence There is often little practical difference between power and influence. Power and influence are alike in that each has both rational and relational basis.
They differ in the respect of the way they are being exercised.
The exercise of power depends upon potential sanctions, while the exercise of influence does not. It is also pertinent to note that influence may be implicit or explicit. The efficacy of these variants however varies from individual to individual, group unto group.
Authority For the exercise of power to be really acceptable, it has to be authorized or legitimized. In the final breakdown, it is important for all people in positions of power that they should have their position recognized as legitimate rightful by those over whom they have power. Authority is the right to direct and command others to obedience without dissent, and it is associated with respect and influence as well as ability to secure voluntary compliance with decisions.
Allan Ball has also defined political authority as the recognition of the right to rule irrespective of the sanctions the ruler may possess. Max Weber — a German sociologist gave a trichotomous classification of the sources of political authority: This takes the form of respect for the monarch or chief.
Charismatic authority is exercised because of the belief in the personal qualities or gifts of grace of a particular person. As for legal-rational authority, this type of authority is legitimated by the supremacy of the law. The laws subscribed are seen as constitutional and in line with the political culture of the people.
These sources of authority are not necessarily exclusive. They could be in various combinations or co-exist in specific political communities. Legitimacy This refers to the ways by which power or the use of coercion as discussed is transposed into authority.
It also means the acceptability of a particular government or an institution of government by the people.
- Importance of Power, Influence, Authority and Legitimacy in Political Science
In other words, legitimacy implies the same evidence of popularly accepted justification for the exercise of rule and power. Legitimacy is determined by reference to the attitudes and customs of the people and it is conferred when the people willingly accept the laws, leaders and the institutions.
Legitimacy has been used in three senses which are: The must of obedience becomes an ought. As a result of this, power repeatedly changes to authority. Today, military ethos are more pronounced even than when we were practicing military rule.
Power, authority and influence
It is understandable that today people seek to control the machinery of government where power resides in the bid to have access to economic and social power in order to control the public. This explains the craze for power in Nigeria today. If a person believes that an entity has the right to exercise social control, he or she may also accept personal disadvantages.
Max Weber proposed that societies behave cyclically in governing themselves with different types of governmental legitimacy. That democracy was unnecessary for establishing legitimacy, a condition that can be established with codified laws, customs, and cultural principles, not by means of popular suffrage.
That a society might decide to revert from the legitimate government of a rational—legal authority to the charismatic government of a leader; e.
Mattei Dogan The French political scientist Mattei Dogan 's contemporary interpretation of Weber's types of political legitimacy traditional, charismatic, legal-rational proposes that they are conceptually insufficient to comprehend the complex relationships that constitute a legitimate political system in the twenty-first century.
That traditional authority has disappeared in the Middle East ; that the rule-proving exceptions are Islamic Iran and Saudi Arabia.
Legitimacy (political) - Wikipedia
Hence, the intellectually restrictive politics of dogmatism "My answer is right, and all others are wrong"scepticism "All answers are equally true or [false]; everyone has a right to his own truth"and eclecticism "Each meaning gives a partial view, so the more meanings the better" are inappropriate philosophic stances for managing a political term that has more than one meaning.
Walter Bryce Gallie Establishing what qualifies as a legitimate form of government continues to be a topic of great philosophical controversy. Forms of legitimate government are posited to include: The legitimacy of a Communist state derives from having won a civil wara revolutionor from having won an election, such as the Presidency of Salvador Allende —73 in Chile; thus, the actions of the Communist government are legitimate, authorised by the people.
In the early twentieth century, Communist parties based the arguments supporting the legitimacy of their rule and government upon the scientific nature of Marxism.
The modern political concept of constitutionalism establishes the law as supreme over the private will, by integrating nationalismdemocracy, and limited government.
Power, authority and influence – Oliver Thylmann’s Thoughts
The political legitimacy of constitutionalism derives from popular belief and acceptance that the actions of the government are legitimate because they abide by the law codified in the political constitution.
The political scientist Carl Joachim Friedrich —84 said that, in dividing political power among the organs of government, constitutional law effectively restrains the actions of the government. In a democracy, government legitimacy derives from the popular perception that the elected government abides by democratic principles in governing, and thus is legally accountable to its people. In the s and the s, fascism based its political legitimacy upon the arguments of traditional authority; respectively, the German National Socialists and the Italian Fascists claimed that the political legitimacy of their right to rule derived from philosophically denying the popular political legitimacy of elected liberal democratic governments.
How can parliamentary government make for law and legality, when a 49 per cent minority accepts as politically legitimate the political will of a 51 per cent majority?
In a monarchy, the divine right of kings establishes the political legitimacy of the rule of the monarch king or queen ; legitimacy also derives from the popular perception tradition and custom and acceptance of the monarch as the rightful ruler of nation and country. Contemporarily, such divine-right legitimacy is manifest in the absolute monarchy of the House of Saud est.
Moreover, constitutional monarchy is a variant form of monarchic political legitimacy which combines traditional authority and legal—rational authority, by which means the monarch maintains nationalist unity one people and democratic administration a political constitution.