of the Constitutional Reform Act on the Relationship between the Judiciary, the Executive and Parliament. Appendix 4: Paper by. Relationship between Parliament and Executive. The Legislative Assembly comprises 17 peoples' representatives elected by the people and 9 nobles'. Capitol Other types of institutional relationships exist between branches of government, including impeachment of executive or judicial officials by the legislature.
As it transpired, the referendum was not passed either by the requisite majority of the Australian States or by an overall majority and thus failed. The case stands to this day in Australia as an important example of the limits of our parliament's ability to circumscribe civil liberties, even of the promoters of unpopular causes.
Very recently, when Papua New Guinea's Supreme Court held that the detention of asylum seekers on Manus Island violated the National Constitution,  the immediate response of the Prime Minister, the Honourable Peter O'Neill MP, was to state publicly that the government would abide the order of the court. The point for present purposes is that the reactions of Prime Ministers Menzies and O'Neill were in conformity with the Latimer House Principles, whereas, with all due respect, the behaviour of President Mugabe and the statement made by Prime Minister Gillard were not.
In relation to relations between the parliament and the Executive on the one hand and the judiciary on the other, these principles do not exist to protect the vanity or sensibilities of the judiciary. The reasoning employed in a judgement is not immune from criticism. What should be avoided is criticism which is subversive of the separate, constitutional role of the judiciary to interpret and apply the law of the land or, put another way, criticism which is subversive of the rule of law.
Statements which suggest that the judiciary must adhere to the views of the Executive are likewise subversive.
There is a corollary of this so far as the judiciary is concerned. It is not the function of the judiciary to have the general administration of Acts of Parliament or to formulate and implement national policy. These are the functions of the Executive.Legislature, executive and judiciary explained - How govt works - Indian Polity
The concern of the judiciary is only with the legality of the discharge of these functions by the Executive, not with their merits.
If, in so doing, the court avoids administrative injustice or error, so be it; but the court has no jurisdiction simply to cure administrative injustice or error.
Separation of Powers
The merits of administrative action, to the extent that they can be distinguished from legality, are for the repository of the relevant power and, subject to political control, for the repository alone. But that need is no less in, for example, a case concerning the judicial review of a decision concerning whether an individual is entitled to a particular benefit under statute than it is in a case involving the constitutionality of an action implementing high national policy.
Further, it is not only in these public law cases that that need arises. It is the daily business of the courts to determine a range of other civil disputes, notably including tax liability disputes, to which a body politic or official or agency thereof is a party.
Separation of Powers | Legislative, Executive, Judicial
That is not to mention criminal cases in which the Crown or the State will always be a party. In all such cases, a failure on the part of the other branches of government to respect the separate, adjudicative role of the judiciary is subversive of the rule of law.
The exercise of judicial power must entail deference not just to the separate role of the Executive but also to the separate role of parliament.
A not infrequently encountered need for this deference occurs when a court is urged by a Minister or other officer or agency of the Executive to adopt a construction of legislation favoured by the Executive but which does not accord with the meaning of that legislation as disclosed by its text. In these circumstances, it is not for a court to construe the legislation on the basis of what parliament might have specified if it were desired to implement a particular policy.
For to do that would, in effect, be to legislate. Instead, the court must construe the legislation on the basis of the text parliament has chosen to approve.
If that text has imperfectly implemented that policy, it is for parliament, if so disposed, to amend the legislation so as more exactly to implement that policy. This approach to the construction of legislation must inform the judiciary in cases great and small. That persistence and the related behaviours of King Charles in endeavouring to govern without parliament and to impose taxes without parliamentary authority led in the midth century to civil war between the King and his supporters and parliament and its supporters.
King Charles lost that war and paid for his adherence to his principles with his life. But the subsequent English experience after that civil war was that regicide and the triumph of parliament and a republican ideal led not to government by parliamentary authority but instead to a military dictatorship under Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell, backed by the New Model Army.
On Cromwell's death, peace was preserved by a restoration of the monarchy but on terms that, over the course of the reign of King Charles II and his successors, led to an acknowledgement of the supremacy of parliament within the field of its legislative competence and to the affirmation of the separate role of an independent judiciary by express provision for the continued tenure in office of judges, subject to capacity and good behaviour.
The instruments by which these features of what has proved to be an enduringly successful system of government were enshrined were: The Declaration of Breda of 4 Aprilby which King Charles II undertook, if restored to power, to issue a general pardon for crimes committed during the Civil War and the period of the Protectorate for all those who acknowledged him as the lawful monarch; to uphold the right of those who purchased property during that period to retain that property; religious toleration; to pay arrears owing to members of the army, and that the army would be reconstituted under the service of the Crown.
In this lie the origins of the Westminster system of government in which Ministers appointed by the Crown or other Head of State hold office only while they enjoy the confidence of parliament. This declaration was later recited and the rights it specified enacted by the English Parliament in the Bill of Rights Eng.
The Act of Settlement Engwhich provided for the succession to the Throne and for the terms of that succession after the failure of King William and Queen Mary and their successor, Queen Anne to produce a surviving heir. It affords the judiciary a tenure not enjoyed by Chief Justice Coke and facilitates the discharge of the judicial function he defended. In England and Wales, provision for this tenure of this kind for the senior judiciary is now found in s 11 of the Senior Courts Act UK.
Parliament & Executive
This is based on the idea that it is not enough to separate the powers and guarantee their independence but to give the various branches the constitutional means to defend their own legitimate powers from the encroachments of the other branches.
The origin of checks and balances, like separation of powers itself, is specifically credited to Montesquieu in the Enlightenment in The Spirit of the Laws, under this influence was implemented in in the Constitution of the United States.
The following example of the separation of powers and their mutual checks and balances for the experience of the United States Constitution is presented as illustrative of the general principles applied in similar forms of government as well. The provision for defense must in this, as in all other cases, be made commensurate to the danger of attack.
Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. The interest of the man must be connected with the constitutional rights of the place. It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices should be necessary to control the abuses of government. But what is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary.
In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: This policy of supplying, by opposite and rival interests, the defect of better motives, might be traced through the whole system of human affairs, private as well as public. We see it particularly displayed in all the subordinate distributions of power, where the constant aim is to divide and arrange the several offices in such a manner as that each may be a check on the other that the private interest of every individual may be a sentinel over the public rights.
These inventions of prudence cannot be less requisite in the distribution of the supreme powers of the State. The most important mechanisms are the vote of no confidence and impeachment. The vote of no confidence focuses on holding the Executive as a collective body to account and emphasizes the need for the Cabinet to carry out its responsibilities effectively and efficiently.
Ministers who are elected representatives will lose their ministerial portfolios but remain in the Legislative Assembly as elected representatives. The Constitution provides a specific mechanism by which a new Prime Minister must be elected by the Legislative Assembly within 48 hours of the dissolution of Cabinet as a result of a vote of no confidence.
In the event a new Prime Minister is not be elected within 48 hours, the King will dissolve the Legislative Assembly, and a general election must be held within 90 days. The Vote of No Confidence is perhaps the ultimate mechanism of holding the Executive to account to Parliament.
By contrast impeachment is a mechanism designed to address individual wrongdoing or maladministration. As such, the consequences are more severe, in that a member or Minister will lose their position as a member of parliament if the impeachment charges are upheld by the Legislative Assembly.
It will not instigate a change of government unless it was the Prime Minister. In this way, individual Ministers could lose their seats if convicted for wrongdoing in relation to any professional misconduct in relation to the conduct of their duties as Ministers.
Ultimately impeachment is one effective mechanism to hold Cabinet Ministers accountable to Parliament. The Executive is often referred to as Cabinet or Government. The Legislative Assembly represents the people and makes the laws, while the Executive executes and administers the laws and sets policy.