Contrary to Warshaw's findings, our results indicate little difference between In addition, contextual correspondence between intention and behavior had little. One of the popular models is the Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasons action, which uses the behavior intention as the intervening construct between attitude. finding is in accord with Ajzen  who argued that a decline in the relationship between intention and behaviour could be expected, depending on the time.
Less behavior discrepancy will be explained in a high involvement purchase. The investigation of intention-behavior discrepancy receives the most attention. Various results and hypotheses have been posited for the explanation of the discrepancy. It is important for the understanding of consumer behavior and on how to transform this knowledge for the use of marketing practitioners.
Of course, the operation of this knowledge can be observed in strategic formulation of the marketing mix. Looking back on the utilization of this knowledge on buyer behavior, marketing practitioners had been using various techniques to change the attitudes of buyers. Many promotional campaigns were designed to give such a result. Marketing practitioners have also been using another set of knowledge from buyer behavior research. They have been using various behavioral change techniques in purchase situations to attract brand-switching and impulse purchases.
Some of these techniques include couponing, point-of-sale display, price dealing, unit pricing, in-store advertising, in-store layout and design and stocking techniques. These behavioral change techniques have demonstrated that they may work better than conventional promotional campaigns for changing attitudes.
On the other hand, the results of this behavior change strategy should demonstrate the point that intention and behavior discrepancy is not a random error. Also, the discrepancy cannot just be explained by stochastic models alone. It is a systematic intervention of forces that take place between intention and behavior. The proposed paradigm in this paper should be considered as a foundation or springboard into the ne-t generation of research in this area.
It combines the research focus on how and when intention-behavior discrepancy can occur. American Psychologist, 36, Lawrence Erlbaum Associate Publishers. Psychological Bulletin, 84, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, MurchisonA Handbook of Social Psychology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,41, Journal of Social Psychology, Journal of Consumer Research, 5, Journal of Marketing Research, 11, Journal of Consumer Research, 2, Advances in Consumer Research, 2, Paper presented at APA div.
Unpublished paper, University of Utah. Psychological Review, 86, European Research, 7, Annual Review of Psychology, Calif: Result of a longitudinal survey. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, Journal of Experimental Social PsYchology, 14, Feldman edCognitive Consistency.
Some applications and implications. Howe edNebraska Symposium on Motivation,Vol. University of Nebraska Press. An Introduction to Theory and Research. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, Implications of attitudes toward behavior alternatives.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17, Human Communication Research, 3, An analysis of specificity of attitudinal predictors. Human Relations, 30, An Analysis of Consumer Behavior. PsYchological Studies of the American Economy. The Dynamics of Consumer Reaction. New York UniversitY Press, Social Forces, 13, Association for Consumer Research. Advances in Consumer Research, 3, Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, Aronson edsThe Handbook of Social Psychology, 2nd ed. An example of the application of longitudinal analysis.
American Marketing Association, Look to the method of attitude formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, Journal of Personality Social Psychology, 10, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, Journal of Marketing, 37, Wright edsAdvances in Consumer Research, Urbana: Association for Consumer Research, 2, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 2 Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, Berkowitz edAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology. That is, the performance of physical activity is not fully under complete volitional control. According to the TPB [ 4 ], the construct of perceived behavioural control PBC deals with human behaviour not under complete volitional control.
As indicated by Ajzen [ 14 ], PBC can be viewed as the combined influence of two components: However, in order to play these roles, two conditions must be met: Therefore, investigating PBC as a moderator of the intention-behaviour relationship and scrutinizing moderators of the PBC-behaviour relationship is justifiable. Moderators In scientific literature, PBC has received mixed evidence for its moderating effect of the intention-behaviour relationship [ 1617 ].
About half of the studies reviewed showed a moderating effect of PBC on the intention-behaviour relationship. In each case, higher PBC was associated with better intention-behaviour consistency. In the studies by Kimiecik [ 18 ] and Payne, Jones and Harris [ 19 ], this moderating effect was observed among a sample of and employees, respectively, over a period of two weeks, whereas in the study by Terry and O'Leary [ 20 ], this effect was reported among undergraduate students over a period of four weeks.
Another study reported a moderating effect for self-efficacy, a variable close to the concept of PBC [ 4 ]. In their study, Courneya and McAuley [ 22 ] investigated the moderating role of self-efficacy on the intention-behaviour relationship among undergraduate students.
Do self- reported intentions predict clinicians' behaviour: a systematic review
They observed that higher perception of self-efficacy was associated with higher intention-behaviour consistencies at four-week follow-up.
Given that Ajzen [ 14 ] considers self-efficacy as one of the sub-dimensions i. Anticipated regret is the perceived feeling of regret if the target behaviour is not performed. Among the theoretical reasons why anticipated regret could be a moderator of the intention-behaviour relationship was its association with greater intention stability [ 2324 ]. Thus, the intention of individuals who anticipate regret for not exercising should better predict behaviour, compared to those not anticipating regret for not exercising.
Moderation effect was reported for past behaviour for both the intention-behaviour [ 24 ] and PBC-behaviour [ 26 ] relationships. However, two opposite findings were reported concerning the intention-behaviour relationship. On the one hand, some researchers observed that the intention-behaviour relationship was stronger when past behaviour was high. The main reason offered for this moderating effect was that past behaviour was related to intention stability see also Conner and Godin [ 25 ].
However, it has also been documented that the intention-behaviour relationship was low when the behaviour had been frequently performed in the past e. Verplanken, Aarts, van Knippenberg and Moonen, [ 27 ]; for travel mode choice. This latter observation is congruent with Triandis' Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour TIP; Triandis [ 28 ]suggesting that behaviour falls less under the control of cognition when it is performed frequently.
Thus, this controversy in findings justifies performing additional tests on the moderating effect of past behaviour on the intention-behaviour relationship.
The potential mechanism by which past behaviour may act as a moderator relates to actual control. If individuals are familiar with the behaviour to be adopted, which is likely to be the case for individuals with high levels of past behaviour, PBC should be more accurate and, consequently, PBC should adequately reflect actual control and the PBC-behaviour relationship should be stronger.
Explaining Intention-Behavior Discrepancy--A Paradigm by John K. Wong and Jagdish N. Sheth
Indeed, PBC was a significant determinant of behaviour for samples familiar with the behaviour, whereas it was not a significant determinant of behaviour among samples unfamiliar with the behaviour. When the frequency of past physical activity was moderate or high, PBC was a significant determinant of physical activity whereas it was not a significant determinant when the frequency was low.
Age was found to moderate the intention-behaviour relationship. According to the meta-analyses of Hagger, Chatzisarantis and Biddle [ 6 ] and of Downs and Haussenblas [ 7 ], a lower intention-behaviour relationship was observed among younger individuals compared to older age groups. Empirical applications have demonstrated that behavioral intention can be used to predict behavior e.
Given its importance both as a theoretical construct and as a useful predictor variable, questions regarding the appropriate measurement of behavioral intentions are critical to research in the area. This is particularly true since the large body of published research employing paper and pencil measures of intention is small in comparison with the number of real-world implications in consumer surveys.
Despite the importance given behavioral intention in consumer behavior theory and the widespread use of intention measures in practice, many researchers have found low correlations between measured intentions and observed behavior.
One area of explanation for such predictive variations has focused on the manner in which intention is assessed.
Ajzen and Fishbein claim that the strength of the intention-behavior relationship will be influenced by the degree of correspondence between the intention measure and the behavior criterion. Prediction should be enhanced when the measure of intention and behavior correspond in terms of target, action, context, and time elements.
Intentions to purchase an automobile a general targetfor example, should not be expected to accurately predict purchases of a particular automobile brand a specific target.
Similarly, behaviors that can be performed in a number of contexts or situations may not be accurately predicted when the criterion behavior is to be observed in each of these contexts and the intention measure fails to fully specify the situations in which the behavior can occur.
Evidence supporting the predictive need for correspondence between predictor and criterion variables has been generated by research investigating attitude-behavior relationships. In an extensive review of this literature, Ajzen and Fishbein found that strong relationships between attitudinal and behavioral measures existed under high levels of correspondence whereas low levels generated weak relationships.
They noted, however, that there is a conspicuous lack of research relevant to the need for contextual correspondence. More recently, Miller and Ginter examined the value of employing contextually correspondent attitude measures for predicting patronage behavior of fast-food outlets.
Their research indicated that a contextually correspondent attitude measure provided a superior prediction of patronage behavior than attained by an attitude measure lacking contextual correspondence. Warshaw has also argued that the lack of contextually specific measures may partially account for low intention-behavior relationships, and has recommended measuring the contextual antecedents of intentions.Huge Difference between Behaviors and Intentions
If these conditional antecedents are specified completely and independently, then intentions can be decomposed as follows: One possible contextual antecedent of product purchase is purchase location.
Soft drinks, for example, can be bought in a number of acquisition sites e.
For estimating intention to purchase a given soft drink brand, assessment of P Xi would involve asking respondents the likelihood of produce purchase from each location e. Warshaw compared conditional and direct measures of intentions to purchase various soft drinks and concluded that a conditional measure employing purchase location as the conditional antecedent was superior in predicting purchase behavior.
It is not clear, however, whether these differences were due to the measurement format or the lack of equivalence in contextual correspondence as both factors covaried together. That is, the direct measure of purchase intention did not specify the acquisition sites that were incorporated into the behavioral measure and thus lacked contextual correspondence with the criterion behavior.
In contrast, because purchase location represented the antecedent upon which the conditional measure was based, this measure did possess contextual correspondence.
One cannot, then, unambiguously determine which of these two measurement issues contributed to Warshaw's results. In a comparison of direct and conditional measures that were equivalent in their contextual correspondence, Jaccard, Knox, and Brinberg found the two approaches to yield essentially equivalent predictions of behavior. This would imply that the differences reported by Warshaw were due to the inequities in the measures' contextual correspondence.
The goal of this research was to disentangle these factors by e a mining conditional and direct measures that contextually corresponded to the criterion behavior.