Relationship between cell structure and plant parts

Plant Cell - Structure & Parts of Plant Cell | [email protected]

relationship between cell structure and plant parts

Plant cells and animal cells have evolved different organelles to perform specific functions. -a structure holds all of the parts of the factory in place (cytoplasm). Collenchyma cells provide support to growing parts of a plant. Specialized structures in plant cells include chloroplasts, a large vacuole, and the cell wall. (mutually beneficial) relationship, and they did so independently of each other. Plant cells are eukaryotic cells i.e., the DNA in a plant cell is enclosed within the nucleus. The most important distinctive structure of plant cell is the presence of.

Plant cells are generally a square shape while animal cells are usually circular. Plant cells and animal cells have evolved different organelles to perform specific functions. Plant cells have chloroplasts, a cell wall and a central vacuole. Animal cells lack these three organelles. Plant cells have chloroplasts because they make their own food.

Plant cells have a cell wall so that they do not burst when the central vacuole fills up with water. Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, and lack membrane bound organelles. They are the oldest cells on earth. Prokaryotes often move using special structures such as flagella or cilia. Smooth ER has no ribosomes; it is the area from which vesicles carrying proteins and lipids are budded; it also inactivates harmful chemicals.

In the Golgi bodies, proteins and lipids undergo final processing, sorting, and packaging. The membranes of the Golgi are arranged in stacks of flattened sacs whose edges break away as vesicles. A Variety of Vesicles 1. Lysosomes are vesicles that bud from Golgi bodies; they carry powerful enzymes that can digest the contents of other vesicles, worn-out cell parts, or bacteria and foreign particles.

Peroxisomes are vesicles containing enzymes that break down fatty acids and amino acids; the hydrogen peroxide released is degraded by another enzyme. Mitochondria are the primary organelles for transferring the energy in carbohydrates to ATP under oxygen-plentiful conditions. Hundreds of thousands of mitochondria occur in cells.


It has two membranes, an inner folded membrane cristae surrounded by a smooth outer membrane. Inner and outer compartments formed by the membranes are important in energy transformations. Mitochondria have their own DNA and some ribosomes, a fact which points to the possibility that they were once independent entities.

Specialized Plant Organelles A.

Chloroplasts and Other Plastids 1. Chloroplasts are oval or disk shaped, bounded by a double membrane, and critical to the process of photosynthesis. In the stacked disks granapigments and enzymes trap sunlight energy to form ATP. Sugars are formed in the fluid substance stroma surrounding the stacks. Pigments such as chlorophyll green confer distinctive colors to the chloroplasts.

Chromoplasts have carotenoids, which impart red-to-yellow colors to plant parts, but no chlorophyll. Amyloplasts have no pigments; they store starch grains in plant parts such as potato tubers. The cytoplasm is forced into a very narrow zone between the central vacuole and the plasma membrane.

Plant Cell Structure ( Read ) | Biology | CK Foundation

The cytoskeleton is an interconnected system of fibers, threads, and lattices that extends between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. It gives cells their internal organization, overall shape, and capacity to move.

The main components are microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments: Some portions are transient, such as the "spindle" microtubules used in chromosome movement during cell division; others are permanent, such as filaments operational in muscle contraction. The Structural Basis of Cell Movements 1. Through the controlled assembly and disassembly of their subunits, microtubules and microfilaments grow or shrink in length example: Microfilaments or microtubules actively slide past one another example: Microtubules or microfilaments shunt organelles from one location to another example: Flagella and Cilia 1.

Flagella are quite long, are usually not numerous, and are found on one-celled protistans and animal sperm cells. Cilia are shorter and more numerous and can provide locomotion for free-living cells or may move surrounding water and particles if the ciliated cell is anchored. Cell Surface Specializations A. Eukaryotic Cell Walls 1. Many single-celled eukaryotes have a cell wall, a supportive and protective structure outside the plasma membrane 2.

Plant Cell Structure and Parts Explained With a Labeled Diagram

Microscopic pores allow water and solute passage to and from underlying plasma membrane. In plants, bundles of cellulose strands form the primary cell wall, which is more pliable than the more rigid secondary wall that is laid down inside it later.

They are mostly present in the leaf epidermis, stem pith, root and fruit pulp. Mature collenchyma cells are living, and provide stretchable support to the plant. Lastly, sclerenchyma cells e.

Now, let us see the different parts of a plant cell with their significant roles. Cell wall Cell wall is the outermost tough and rigid layer, which comprises cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and at other times, lignin.

Plant Cell

As expected, it remains connected with the cell walls of other cells. The prime functions of cell wall are protection, giving structural support and helping in the filter mechanism. Cell Membrane Cell membrane, also called plasma membrane, is present inside the cell wall and surrounds the cytoplasm.

It connects the intracellular components organelles and cytoplasm with the extracellular environment, and helps in protection and transportation.

relationship between cell structure and plant parts

The cell membrane is permeable to specific substances only. Plasmodesmata Plasmodesma plural plasmodesmata is a small opening, which connects plant cells with each other. Present only in some types of algal cells and plants cells, this connecting channel enables transport of materials and allows communication between the cells.

In a single plant cell, about 1, plasmodesmata are present. Nuclear Membrane The nuclear membrane and the nuclear envelope mean one and same thing. As the name reveals, it is the outer covering of the nucleus. It separates the cytoplasmic contents from the nuclear contents.

relationship between cell structure and plant parts

Nonetheless, minute pores nuclear pores are present for exchanging materials between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Nucleus Nucleus is a specialized organelle, which contains the plant's hereditary material i. Inside the nucleus, a dense, spherical body called nucleolus is present.

The nucleus contains structures, which regulates the cell cycle, growth, protein synthesis and reproductive function. Vacuole Vacuoles are large membrane-bound compartments, which store water and compounds.

They function as storage, excretory and secretory organelles.