Understand the association among schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, antipsychotic agents and metabolic changes that may contribute to the insulin. Ann Med. Mar;45(2) doi: / Epub May The relationship between bipolar disorder and type 2 diabetes. Although the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression, this explanation does not fully explain the relationship between these 2 conditions.
Results We found that age- and gender- adjusted risk for diabetes mellitus was increased in patients with bipolar disorder and vice versa odds ratio range between 1. Discussion Our results in large population-based cohort studies are consistent with the results of smaller studies and chart reviews. Even though it is likely that heterogeneous risk factors may play a role in diabetes mellitus and in bipolar disorder, growing evidence from cell culture experiments and animal studies suggests shared disease mechanisms.
Furthermore, disease-modifying effects of bipolar disorder and diabetes mellitus on each other appear to be substantial, impacting both treatment response and outcomes. Conclusions The risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with bipolar disorder is increased.Depression, Bipolar, and Diabetes
Our findings add to the growing literature on this topic. Increasing evidence for shared disease mechanisms suggests new disease models that could explain the results of our study. A better understanding of the complex relationship between bipolar disorder and diabetes mellitus could lead to novel therapeutic approaches and improved outcomes.
BD occurs worldwide with a lifetime prevalence of about 0. Evidence for an increase in chronic medical conditions in patients with BD has been described since the pretreatment era Esquirol ; Swift ; Rennie ; Stenstedt ; Alvarez Ariza Several disorders are frequently diagnosed in patients with BD, including epilepsy, thyroid disorders, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune—allergic disorders, and diabetes mellitus, especially in the elderly Lala and Sajatovic ; Perugi et al.
Since symptoms of these somatic disorders overlap with those of BD, they could challenge the diagnostic process and delay treatment Sajatovic and Chen ; Smith et al.
The relationship between bipolar disorder and type 2 diabetes: more than just co-morbid disorders.
Chronic medical conditions in patients with severe mental illness also lead to increased risk of frequent hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations Davydow et al.
While recent reviews of this topic have identified comorbid medical conditions in the elderly with BD as a growing public health problem Depp and Jeste ; Vasudev and Thomas ; Dols et al. However, case reports suggest that co-occurring medical conditions have a significant effect on the disease onset, the disease course, treatment response, and outcome Sami et al.
Diabetes mellitus appears to take center stage among these disorders. The percentage of patients with bipolar disorder who are overweight is remarkable: Studies have found that between 54 and 68 percent of bipolar patients are either overweight or obese, with obesity affecting about one-fourth of patients and more women than men.
Managing Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Concurrently Promotes and Enables Stability
Obesity is one of the criteria for metabolic syndrome, the health condition that includes these serious health risks: A Spanish study of patients with bipolar disorder found that they were 58 percent more likely to have metabolic syndrome than the rest of the population. Causes of Obesity and Diabetes in Bipolar Patients Researchers have paid close attention to the causes of obesity in bipolar patients in recent years.
The use of bipolar medications has been singled out as a likely factor in weight gainalthough some doctors suspect there may be a genetic component involved as well. Research has linked the use of lithium and antiepileptic medications in particular with weight gain. One review of 24 medication trials found that these drugs caused significant weight gain in pediatric bipolar patients 75 percent of the time. Antipsychotic medications also are used to treat bipolar patients, and they too have been linked with weight gain, particularly second-generation drugs like clozapine and olanzapine.
The same review of medication trials found that bipolar patients gained more weight when taking second-generation antipsychotics and gained an extreme amount of weight when taking antipsychotics along with mood-stabilizing medications. A genetic link between bipolar disorder and diabetes is suspected because common genetic factors between the two can cause a rare disorder called Wolfram syndrome.
Can Bipolar Disorder Lead to Diabetes?
People with Wolfram syndrome develop diabetes and exhibit bipolar symptoms. However, researchers have not extensively explored this potential genetic connection.
Due to the clear link between bipolar medications and weight gain, researchers are urging doctors to closely monitor the health of any patient placed on these drugs. If you are taking a drug to manage bipolar disorder, talk to your doctor if you notice changes in your weight or an increase in abdominal fat.