Taiwan Runair-Air Circulation Socks For Hiking, OEM, Textile | francinebavay.info
Local Aboriginal people had a strong connection with killer whales, and this . set between the ocean, the mouth of Pambula River and Ben Boyd . Be part of the great atmosphere created by the many hundreds who Anne has new arrivals of bamboo for every activity from men's tees, circulation socks. Image may contain: people sitting, sky, ocean, outdoor and water People Link to an Ercoupe enthusiast group webpage. Flew the at Pompano Air Center. Orthofeet Padded Sole 3 Pack Non-Binding Comfort Diabetic Circulation Socks. The oceans and atmosphere interact in many different ways. There can be a net exchange of heat, salt, water and momentum between them.
In the biosphere where it occurs as organic compounds in organisms. CO2 enters the biosphere mainly through photosynthesis.
From organisms it can return to the atmosphere by respiration and by decay when organisms die, or it can become buried in the Earth. In the Earth's lithosphere as carbonate minerals, graphite, coal, petroleum. From here it can return to the atmosphere by weathering, volcanic eruptions, hot springs, or by human extraction and burning to produce energy. Cycling between the atmosphere and the biosphere occurs about every 4. Cycling between the other reservoirs probably occurs on an average of millions of years.
For example, carbon stored in the lithosphere in sedimentary rocks or as fossil fuels only re-enters the atmosphere naturally when weathering and erosion expose these materials to the Earth's surface.
When humans extract and burn fossil fuels the process occurs much more rapidly than it would occur by natural processes. With an increased rate of cycling between the lithosphere and the atmosphere, extraction from the atmosphere by increased interaction with the oceans, or by increased extraction by organisms must occur to balance the input. If this does not occur, it may result in global warming. Global Warming Average global temperatures vary with time as a result of many processes interacting with each other.
These interactions and the resulting variation in temperature can occur on a variety of time scales ranging from yearly cycles to those with times measured in millions of years. Such variation in global temperatures is difficult to understand because of the complexity of the interactions and because accurate records of global temperature do not go back more than years.
But, even if we look at the record for the past years, we see that overall, there is an increase in average global temperatures, with minor setbacks that may have been controlled by random events such as volcanic eruptions. Records for the past years indicate that average global temperatures have increased by about 0. While this may not seem like much, the difference in global temperature between the coldest period of the last glaciation and the present was only about 5oC.
In order to predict future temperature changes we first need to understand what has caused past temperature changes. Computer models have been constructed to attempt this. Although there is still some uncertainty, most of these models agree that if the greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere until they have doubled over their pre values, the average global temperature increase will be between 1 and 5oC by the year This is not a uniform temperature increase.
Most models show that the effect will be greatest at high latitudes near the poles where yearly temperatures could be as much as 16oC warmer than present.
Effects of Global Warming Among the effects of global warming are: Global Precipitation changes - A warmer atmosphere leads to increased evaporation from surface waters and results in higher amounts of precipitation. Equatorial regions will be wetter than present, while interior portions of continents will become warmer and drier than present.
Changes in vegetation patterns - because rainfall is distributed differently, vegetation will have to adjust to the new conditions. Mid latitude regions become more drought prone, while higher latitude regions become wetter and warmer, resulting in a shift in agricultural patterns. Increased storminess - A warmer, wetter atmosphere favors tropical storm development.
Tropical Cyclones will be stronger and more frequent. Changes in Ice patterns - Due to higher temperatures, ice in mountain glaciers will melt. This is now being observed.
But, because more water will be evaporated from the oceans, more precipitation will reach the polar ice sheets causing them to grow. Reduction of sea ice - Sea ice is greatly reduced due to higher temperatures at the high latitudes, particularly in the northern hemisphere where there is more abundant sea ice. Ice has a high albedo reflectivityand thus reduction of ice will reduce the albedo of the Earth and less solar radiation will be reflected back into space, thus enhancing the warming effect.
Thawing of frozen ground - Currently much of the ground at high latitudes remains frozen all year. Increased temperatures will cause much of this ground to thaw. Ecosystems and human structures currently built on frozen ground will have to adjust. Rise of sea level - Warming the oceans results in expansion of water and thus increases the volume of water in the oceans. Along with melting of mountain glaciers and reduction in sea ice, this will cause sea level to rise and flood coastal zones.
Changes in the hydrologic cycle - With new patterns of precipitation changes in stream flow and groundwater level will be expected. Decomposition of organic matter in soil - With increasing temperatures of the atmosphere the rate of decay of organic material in soils will be greatly accelerated.
This will result in release of CO2 and methane into the atmosphere and enhance the greenhouse effect. Breakdown of gas hydrates - This is basically solid water with gas molecules like methane locked into the crystal structure.
They occur in oceanic sediments and beneath frozen ground at the high latitudes. Warming of the oceans or warming of the soil at high lattitudes could cause melting of the gas hydrates which would release methane into the atmosphere. Since methane is a greenhouse gas, this would cause further global warming. Climate Change Because human history is so short compared to the time scales on which global climate change occurs, we do not completely understand the causes. However, we can suggest a few reasons why climates fluctuate.
Long term variations in climate tens of millions of years on a single continent are likely caused by drifting continents.
Dynamics of ocean atmosphere exchange
If a continent drifts toward the equator, the climate will become warmer. If the continent drifts toward the poles, glaciations can occur on that continent.
Short-term variations in climate are likely controlled by the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth. Among these are astronomical factors and atmospheric factors.
Astronomical Factors - Variation in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit around the sun has periods of aboutyears andyears. Variation in the tilt of the Earth's axis has a period of about 41, years.
Variation in the way the Earth wobbles on its axis, called precession, has a period of about 23, years. The combined effects of these astronomical variations results in periodicities similar to those observed for glacial - interglacial cycles.
Atmospheric Factors- the composition of the Earth's atmosphere can be gleaned from air bubbles trapped in ice in the polar ice sheets. Studying drill core samples of such glacial ice and their contained air bubbles reveals the following: During past glaciations, the amount of CO2 and methane, both greenhouse gasses that tend to cause global warming, were lower than during interglacial episodes.
Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction | francinebavay.info
During past glaciations, the amount of dust in the atmosphere was higher than during interglacial periods, thus more heat was likely reflected from the Earth's atmosphere back into space. The problem in unraveling what this means comes from not being able to understand if low greenhouse gas concentration and high dust content in the atmosphere caused the ice ages or if these conditions were caused by the ice ages. Changes in Oceanic Circulation - small changes in ocean circulation can amplify small changes in temperature variation produced by astronomical factors.
Other factors The energy output from the sun may fluctuate. Large explosive volcanic eruptions can add significant quantities of dust to the atmosphere reflecting solar radiation and resulting in global cooling. Circulation in the Atmosphere The troposphere undergoes circulation because of convection.
Recall that convection is a mode of heat transfer. Convection in the atmosphere is mainly the result of the fact that more of the Sun's heat energy is received by parts of the Earth near the Equator than at the poles.
Thus air at the equator is heated reducing its the density. Lower density causes the air to rise. At the top of the troposphere this air spreads toward the poles.
If the Earth were not rotating, this would result in a convection cell, with warm moist air rising at the equator, spreading toward the poles along the top of the troposphere, cooling as it moves poleward, then descending at the poles, as shown in the diagram above. Once back at the surface of the Earth, the dry cold air would circulate back toward the equator to become warmed once again. Areas where warm air rises and cools are centers of low atmospheric pressure.
In areas where cold air descends back to the surface, pressure is higher and these are centers of high atmospheric pressure. The Coriolis Effect - Again, the diagram above would only apply to a non-rotating Earth. Since the Earth is in fact rotating, atmospheric circulation patterns are much more complex. The reason for this is the Coriolis Effect.
The Coriolis Effect causes any body that moves on a rotating planet to turn to the right clockwise in the northern hemisphere and to the left counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere. The effect is negligible at the equator and increases both north and south toward the poles. The Coriolis Effect occurs because the Earth rotates out from under all moving bodies like water, air, and even airplanes.
Note that the Coriolis effect depends on the initial direction of motion and not on the compass direction. If you look along the initial direction of motion the mass will be deflected toward the right in the northern hemisphere and toward the left in the southern hemisphere. Wind Systems High Pressure Centers - In zones where air descends back to the surface, the air is more dense than its surroundings and this creates a center of high atmospheric pressure.
Since winds blow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure, winds spiral outward away from the high pressure. But, because of the Coriolis Effect, such winds, again will be deflected toward the right in the northern hemisphere and create a general clockwise rotation around the high pressure center. In the southern hemisphere the effect is just the opposite, and winds circulate in a counterclockwise rotation about the high pressure center.
- Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction
- Runair-Air Circulation Socks For Hiking, OEM, Textile
- Runair-Air Circulation Socks For Hiking, OEM, Textile
Such winds circulating around a high pressure center are called anticyclonic winds. Low Pressure Centers - In zones where air ascends, the air is less dense than its surroundings and this creates a center of low atmospheric pressure, or low pressure center.
Winds blow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure, and so the surface winds would tend to blow toward a low pressure center. But, because of the Coriolis Effect, these winds are deflected.
In the northern hemisphere they are deflected to toward the right, and fail to arrive at the low pressure center, but instead circulate around it in a counter clockwise fashion as shown here.
In the southern hemisphere the circulation around a low pressure center would be clockwise. Such winds are called cyclonic winds.
Because of the Coriolis Effect, the pattern of atmospheric circulation is broken into belts as shown here. The rising moist air at the equator creates a series of low pressure zones along the equator. Water vapor in the moist air rising at the equator condenses as it rises and cools causing clouds to form and rain to fall. After this air has lost its moisture, it spreads to the north and south, continuing to cool, where it then descends at the mid-latitudes about 30o North and South.
This is more difficult over the ocean than over land since at sea the observing platform is in motion and the fluxes are very small. However, the vast expanse of the oceans and their large storage capacity makes their contribution to the global climate system important. The challenge is to develop a system which can be applied to a range of gases and which incorporates high accuracy gas analysers.
Ocean atmosphere sulfur exchange InCharlson, Lovelock, Andreae and Watson published a paper proposing what became known as the CLAW from the initial letter of each author's name hypothesis. The hypothesis was that phytoplankton in the oceans produce a gas dimethylsulfide DMS which escapes from the ocean and undergoes a series of transformations in the atmosphere to form small sulfate particles.
These sulfate particles then act as cloud condensation nuclei CCN allowing water to condense on their surfaces creating clouds which reflect the suns radiation and cool the surface.
So tiny marine organisms may be able to regulate climate through their emission of DMS. New Zealand is an excellent place to study biogenic sulfate from the ocean because there is a much smaller industrial pollution background than there is in the northern hemisphere. First, we study the biological factors governing DMS production and, second, we study the atmospheric processes that connect DMS with clouds.
Both require a combination of observational measurements and modelling work Ocean measurements are being made from the RV Tangaroa in the highly productive marine areas around New Zealand and show that high levels of DMS are associated with large plankton blooms. We have also measured changes in DMS in the remote Southern Ocean which were stimulated by addition of iron as a micronutrient to the ocean during an international project run by NIWA.
Atmospheric measurements are carried out at the Baring Head clean air station near Wellington to determine variations in sulfate aerosol and relate these to atmospheric chemistry. We have developed a computer model of the large number of chemical reactions involved and used this to assess the role of different oxidants. To quantify the potential climatic impact of DMS, it is important to be able to distinguish between DMS conversion to sulfate adding to existing particles and conversion that forms new particles.
We are one of very few groups able to make this distinction by using sulfur isotopes heavy and light versions of the sulfur atom. This technique relies on the fact that formation of new particles or accumulation on existing particles affects the ratio of heavy to light sulfur atoms differently. Ocean atmosphere carbon exchange Carbon dioxide CO2 is a soluble gas which dissolves in the oceans and is taken up by marine plants phytoplankton.
A natural cycle results in which CO2 is absorbed from the atmosphere in some generally cooler and more biologically active parts of the ocean and released back to the atmosphere in other generally warmer and less biologically active parts. This natural cycle has been modified through the addition of CO2 to the atmosphere by human activities.
Increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere tend to increase the amount dissolved in the surface ocean. Currently about 29 billion thousand million tonnes of CO2 are being added to the atmosphere each year due to fossil fuel burning and deforestation and the oceans are removing about 7 billion tonnes. A similar amount is removed due to increases in plant biomass and soil carbon.