Relations between Brazil and Portugal go far beyond historical dimension. There is at the United Nations Security Council, in – when Brazil and Portugal. Portuguese is currently the fifth most spoken language in the world and an official language of countries as varied as Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde. Estado Novo, Portugal, Brazil, World War II, diplomatic and political relations .. its internal reconstruction and its growth and development as a united and.
It is not based only on past knowledge, but also on aspirations, impositions and future advisability. Even so, Portuguese-Brazilian relations between and became a crucial issue for both countries, in terms of their processes of national regeneration and cohesion and for their actions and reaffirmation as countries at the external level.
The national experiences of the Estado Novo and their influences on bilateral relations When we read about Portuguese-Brazilian relations during the 20th century mostly until the sthey are seen as reflecting a completely unproductive period at both a political and economic level: Most importantly, the cultural community was maintained.
Portuguese Culture and Language
The community of affection was also obviously maintained. But political and economic relations did not assume a compatible dimension. However, this conceptual generalization cannot be applied to this period, because the rapprochement between both countries, explicitly observable in many areas, increased after the efforts promoted by both dictatorial regimes, and especially by the Portuguese leader.
Oliveira Salazar saw the reinforcement of the transatlantic bilateral bond as crucial, in order to protect existing cultural and historic links, as well as other influences in Brazilian territory. His aim was also to ensure that Portuguese-speaking countries could enjoy greater bargaining power inter pares in the world system, because Brazil represented an international partner with a geopolitical and geostrategic position that was clearly privileged in terms of transatlantic and world contacts.
Portuguese and Brazilian Atlanticism and the particular conjuncture to be found at that time, between the financial crashof and World War II, amounted to a unique moment in the history of international relations that both countries had to take advantage of for the welfare of their nation and its citizens, as well as for their chances to deepen common principles and values. Although there was no positive or significant short-term economic development capable of elevating this bilateral exchange to a level of major prominence, Portuguese-Brazilian cooperation resulted in extremely important events for both parties, allowing not only for the preservation of a cultural community and continued affective exchange between the two nations, but also ensuring a permanent linguistic unity and obtaining dividends that highlighted the cooperation between the two Estado Novo regimes at a pragmatic and political level through their reciprocal, ideological, official and operational supports.
In fact, the cooperation between both states during the two national experiences of the Estado Novo regimes prevented the space of luso-brasilidade from being condemned to total oblivion, and avoided the fragmentation of the transatlantic Portuguese-Brazilian community. This resulted in several positive displays of bilateral cooperation, as well as highlighted potential paths for future collaboration. The first real display of this reciprocal influence is found in the inherent similarity between the political regimes during this period, which they developed through relatively revolutionary processes and with greater or lesser military support during the process of breaking away from previous republican institutions and legal norms.
The Estado Novo phenomenon in both cases is, in fact, the final result of an ongoing disbelief in republican regimes and of a social discontent that began searching for new models in order to raise the morale of the nation. The national project is then defined by a charismatic leader, according to its central goal of regenerating and redeeming the motherland, seen as an indivisible whole the supreme national collective interest was always placed above individual interests.
New regimes were constructed, based on principles such as nationalism, authoritarianism and the complete control and centralization of public affairs, supported by the cult of the leader and mechanisms of repression and control, and the establishment of a system of interventionism and public guidance of the economy and finance, as well as the launching of a struggle against any international ideology.
These were seen as the central requirements for the real application of a national project of regeneration. One of the main gaps between these two national experiences the limited leadership skills of Vargas and the greater political ability of Salazar is shown by the different life spans of the two regimes. Thus, it is in the formative but nonetheless divergent components of those two experiences and the different paths that they followed towards the implementation and constitutionalization of their regimes that we find the keys for understanding the fate of each one.
Among all the external relationships deemed to be central to the foreign policy of both countries, the transatlantic Portuguese-Brazilian relationship was not forgotten or overlooked. With the approach of the Second World War, both leaders were forced to attach even greater importance to Portuguese-Brazilian contacts. In this new period, the importance of maintaining these relations was clearly understood by the Brazilian government, which, although remaining faithful to the principles of American solidarity, certainly believed in preserving its own identity both worldwide and within the regional system, so that cooperation with Portugal brought it every possible advantage.
Between andthere were many favorable results for the Portuguese-Brazilian community in the world, due both to international developments and essentially to the action of both governments, which really began to cooperate more effectively in a variety of areas and to solve several strategic problems.
And this process was reinforced as the regimes consolidated their position and leadership at both the internal and external levels. Economic relations Despite the many bilateral negotiations undertaken between Portugal and Brazil concerning economic issues, there was no major increase in the value of reciprocal trade, and there were even some periods when this declined because of the world depression and the fact that the two national markets were unable to become competitive partners at a financial and logistical level.
Most of the measures outlined in the first agreement, the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation ,8 produced no results whatsoever, and all the attempts made to make economic bilateral cooperation more effective proved fruitless. Both parties agreed on the need to develop trade, but it proved impossible to translate theory into action, despite continuous public efforts to identify the main problems and to find efficient alternatives for their resolution.Why Do Brazilians Speak Portuguese And Not Spanish?
With measures ranging from the Portuguese Special Mission of to the Additional Protocol,10 signed inand the subsequent meeting of the Bilateral Commission, serious efforts were made by the two governments to encourage trade and promote a relationship that was more in keeping with the political statements of unity between the two nations.
However, these political events were unable to stimulate the economic forces necessary for the development of reciprocal contacts there was a widespread reluctance to make contact with the other side of the oceanwhich remained in a passive state, for various reasons: All the economic formulas devised by the two governments, although important as means of keeping the channels of negotiation open during this fifteen-year period, never succeeded in freeing Portugal and Brazil from the nationalist and protectionist position underlying the intrinsic characteristics of the regimes, limiting any possibilities for bilateral economic expansion.
Brazil–Portugal relations - Wikipedia
In the postwar period, Portuguese-Brazilian economic relations could not remain at the same level, with the two countries merely preserving their traditional trade shares: Three main issues are considered to have been crucial in this period, with much more visible and positive results being achieved in these areas than in the economic area, and affording a new central importance to this bilateral relationship. These three issues were: In this way, we can understand the concessions that the Brazilian government made to Portuguese citizens, affording them a regime of exclusivity in its legislation regarding the entry, permanence and access to work of immigrants: Along the same lines, in addition to the various measures that immediately favored the citizens of each country in their everyday life, we can also observe the formalization of Portuguese-Brazilian cooperation in countless areas, such as the postal service15 and telegraphic communications,16 as well as at the level of air transport.
Pragmatically, these agreements specifically covered all Portuguese overseas territories in many of their provisions and directly so, in all clauses, in the case of the Air Transport Agreement.
And finally, the use of the national resources of both countries was guaranteed to effectively support these communications and services, such as ships and national enterprises.
Agreements were signed about strategically important transatlantic matters, such as the above-mentioned, becoming crucially important in the s at the bilateral and international levels, and for different reasons: Cooperation in terms of culture and propaganda At the same time as cooperation was taking place in the political and diplomatic spheres, further evidence was provided of the fact that this was an auspicious period in terms of Portuguese-Brazilian dialog by the cooperation also taking place in the field of culture and propaganda, promoting a true communion of social, political and ideological positions, as well as the sharing of spiritual and cultural experiences between the two communities.
Such cooperation sought to reinvigorate the sense of belonging to one and the same community and culture, which could be found on both sides of the Atlantic the mare nostrum of luso-brasilidadethrough the permanent exchange of intellectuals, artists, qualified experts and technicians, etc.
They were also joined together by the efforts made in each country to promote the presence of reciprocal representatives, as well as the contributions made by both countries towards ensuring united dealings with other foreign representations.
These events promoted the cultural and spiritual links between the two communities, and simultaneously publicized the spiritual development of both nations around the world. The defense of linguistic unity19 although receptive to the differences in vocabulary and spelling between the two national communities acquired a new importance during this period, because of the threats being expressed by some factions who called for a separation at this level between the two countries.
The defense of linguistic autonomy derived during this period not only from Brazilian nationalist supporters in the s, but also from the most evident pragmatic causes, such as the large numbers of immigrants in Brazil and the direct consequences that this had in terms of work and the employment capacity of those people.
Fortunately, such ways of thinking did not become ingrained, which meant that Portuguese was maintained as the official language. Nonetheless, the warning had been given that the maintenance of the language and its uniformity required a continuous effort and bilateral agreement, through permanent collaboration between the two National Academies The Lisbon Academy of Sciences and the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
The second area of cultural cooperation between the two regimes — the area ofpropaganda20 — arose from the specific needs and features of the two authoritarian and dictatorial governments, namely the requirement for an extremely well-organized propaganda system, both internally and internationally, which would be favorable to the regime and sing the praises of the spiritual output of the Estado Novo, making this another matter for bilateral agreement.
Effective cooperation during World War II Finally, the last issue of great importance in bilateral cooperation between Portugal and Brazil is related to the effective cooperation between the two governments during World War II.
Germany, France, Italy and Japan ,22 while also seeking to reinforce the bond existing between the two countries with regard to this matter. In the first half of the 18th century profit remittances from gold averaged 5. Brazilian representatives were elected to the Portuguese Constitutional Courts. John VI faced a political crisis when groups[ who? With the end of the Napoleonic Wars came calls for John to return to Lisbon and for Brazil to return to its previous colonial condition.
By late the situation was becoming unbearable and John VI and the royal family returned to Portugal. Independence of Brazil[ edit ] Further information: As his father had advised him to do, the prince instead declared his intention to stay in Brazil in a speech known as the "Fico" "I am staying".
Pedro proclaimed Brazilian independence on September 7, and subsequently became the first emperor of the country. There was some armed resistance from Portuguese garrisons in Brazil, but the struggle was brief. Revolta da Armada In relations were strained between the two states after Portugal granted refuge to Brazilian rebels after the Revolta da Armada incident. Portugal had sent a naval force constituted by the warships Mindello and Affonso de Albuquerque to Rio de Janeiro to protect Portuguese interests during the naval rebellion against President Floriano Peixoto.
Despite protests from the Brazilian government, Portugal granted refuge to the rebels and sailed to the Rio de la Platawhere most of the refugees disembarked. The incident was regarded as a violation of Brazilian sovereignty and led Brazil to sever diplomatic relations with Portugal.
For this reason, Brazilian investment in Portugal in the s and s was considerably greater than Portuguese investment in Brazil. This treaty regulates the cooperation of Portugal and Brazil in international fora, grants Brazilians in Portugal and Portuguese in Brazil equal rights under the Statute of Equality of Portuguese and Brazilians Estatuto de igualdade entre portugueses e brasileiros ; cultural, scientific, technological, economical, finantial, commercial, fiscal, investment and several other forms of institutional cooperation were also addressed.
The two states hold regular summit meetings to discuss bilateral and multilateral agreements and current topics.