College football - Wikipedia
In that span, I've gone on a few dates with nice enough guys, and know a few close friends who are pursuing serious relationships with their Tinder matches. Football. Poker. Pool Party. Vegas. Nightlife. Day Drinking. Are you the tactical blowhard, or the slide-tackling liability?. The best thing you can do is sit moderately close to a group of guys with your group of friends and then ask them, "hey what school do you guys.
Dangerous mass-formations, which involved interlocking interference, like the flying wedge resulted in serious injuries and deaths. Other rule changes introduced that year included the reduction of the time of play from 70 to 60 minutes and the increase of the distance required for a first down from 5 to 10 yards 9.
To reduce infighting and dirty play between teams, the neutral zone was created along the width of the football.
This is the first recorded instance of a player being paid to participate in a game of American footballalthough many athletic clubs in the s offered indirect benefits, such as helping players attain employment, giving out trophies or watches that players could pawn for money, or paying double in expense money. Despite these extra benefits, the game had a strict sense of amateurism at the time, and direct payment to players was frowned upon, if not outright prohibited.
The National Football League NFLa group of professional teams that was originally established in as the American Professional Football Association, aimed to solve these problems. This new league's stated goals included an end to bidding wars over players, prevention of the use of college players, and abolition of the practice of paying players to leave another team.
The game, a 23—17 overtime victory by the Colts, was seen by millions of television viewers and had a major impact on the popularity of the sport. This, along with the innovations introduced by the new American Football League AFL in the early s, helped football to become the most popular sport in the United States by the mids. The bidding war for players ended inwhen NFL owners approached the AFL regarding a merger, and the two leagues agreed on one that would take full effect in This agreement provided for a common draft that would take place each year, and it instituted an annual World Championship game to be played between the champions of each league.
That game began play at the end of the season. Once the merger was completed, it was no longer a championship game between two leagues, and reverted to the NFL championship game, which came to be known as the Super Bowl.
Each bowl game would be associated with a particular conference, and earning a spot in a bowl game was the reward for winning a conference. This arrangement was profitable, but it tended to prevent the two top-ranked teams from meeting in a true national championship game, as they would normally be committed to the bowl games of their respective conferences.
Several systems have been used since to determine a national champion of college football. The first was the Bowl Coalitionin place from to American football positions A football game is played between two teams of 11 players each. NFL teams are required to number their players by a league-approved numbering system, and any exceptions must be approved by the Commissioner.
The offense red is lined up in a variation of the I formationwhile the defense blue is lined up in the 4—3 defense. Both formations are legal The offensive team must line up in a legal formation before they can snap the ball.
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An offensive formation is considered illegal if there are more than four players in the backfield or fewer than five players numbered 50—79 on the offensive line. Interior offensive linemen are not allowed to move until the snap of the ball. The quarterback is the leader of the offense. Either the quarterback or a coach calls the plays.
Quarterbacks typically inform the rest of the offense of the play in the huddle before the team lines up.
The quarterback lines up behind the center to take the snap and then hands the ball off, throws it or runs with it. Halfbacks may also serve as receivers. Fullbacks tend to be larger than halfbacks and function primarily as blockers, but they are sometimes used as runners in short-yardage situations  and are seldom used in passing situations.
The principal receivers are the wide receivers WR and the tight ends TE. The main goal of the wide receiver is to catch passes thrown by the quarterback,  but they may also function as decoys or as blockers during running plays. Tight ends line up outside the tackles and function both as receivers and as blockers. Defensive ends line up on the ends of the line, while defensive tackles line up inside, between the defensive ends.
The primary responsibilities of defensive ends and defensive tackles is to stop running plays on the outside and inside, respectively, to pressure the quarterback on passing plays, and to occupy the line so that the linebackers can break through.
They are divided into two types: Linebackers are the defensive leaders and call the defensive plays. Their diverse roles include defending the run, pressuring the quarterback, and guarding backs, wide receivers and tight ends in the passing game. Safeties are themselves divided into free safeties FS and strong safeties SS.
Safeties are the last line of defense, and are responsible for stopping deep passing plays as well as running plays. The special teams unit of the team in control of the ball will try and execute field goal FG attempts, punts and kickoffswhile the opposing team's unit will aim to block or return them. The long snapper's job is to snap the football to the holder, who will catch and position it for the placekicker.
There is not usually a holder on kickoffs, because the ball is kicked off of a tee; however, a holder may be used in certain situations, such as if wind is preventing the ball from remaining upright on the tee. The player on the receiving team who catches the ball is known as the kickoff returner KR. The long snapper snaps the football directly to the punter, who then drops and kicks it before it hits the ground.
Gunners line up split outside the line and race down the field, aiming to tackle the punt returner PR — the player that catches the punt.
Upbacks line up a short distance behind the line of scrimmage, providing additional protection to the punter. American football rules Scoring A player for the Navy Midshipmen dark jersey scores a touchdown while a defender from the Tulsa Golden Hurricane in white looks on.
The goal line is marked by the small orange pylon In American football, the winner is the team that has scored the most points at the end of the game. There are multiple ways to score in a football game. The touchdown TDworth six points, is the most valuable scoring play in American football. A touchdown is scored when a live ball is advanced into, caught in, or recovered in the end zone of the opposing team.
A PAT is most commonly attempted from the two- or three-yard line, depending on the level of play. If scored by a placekick or dropkick through the goal posts, it is worth one point, and is typically called the extra point.
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In such a case, a successful attempt is called the two-point conversion  and is worth two points. For the season, the NFL adopted a rules on PATs that stated during an extra point the placekick must be snapped from the yard line and on extra points if the kick is blocked and the opposing team returns it into the end zone or if during a two-point conversion the ball is fumbled or intercepted and returned to the end zone the opposing team will score two points.
No points are awarded on a failed extra point or two-point conversion attempt, although under a rare set of circumstances it is possible to score a safety, worth one point, if the defense takes the ball back into its own end zone and is downed there.
American football - Wikipedia
Safeties are worth two points, which are awarded to the defense. The tall, yellow goal posts mark where the ball must pass for a successful field goal or extra point. Lines marked along the ends and sides of the field are known respectively as the end lines and sidelinesand goal lines are marked 10 yards 9.
Weighted pylons are placed on the inside corner of the intersections of the goal lines and end lines. White markings on the field identify the distance from the end zone. Inbound lines, or hash marksare short parallel lines that mark off 1 yard 0. Later inStevens Tech became the fifth school to field a team. Bythe college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game. Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to The only way to score was still to bat or kick the ball through the opposing team's goal, and the game was played in two 45 minute halves on fields yards long and 70 yards wide.
Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team's own particular code.
At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on the Football Association's rules than the rules of the recently founded Rugby Football Unionwas drawn up for intercollegiate football games. McGill football game Harvard vs.
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Harvard, however, preferred to play a rougher version of football called "the Boston Game" in which the kicking of a round ball was the most prominent feature though a player could run with the ball, pass it, or dribble it known as "babying". The man with the ball could be tackled, although hitting, tripping, "hacking" shin-kicking and other unnecessary roughness was prohibited. There was no limit to the number of players, but there were typically ten to fifteen per side.
A player could carry the ball only when being pursued. As a result of this, Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by Rutgers, Princeton and Columbia at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City on October 20, to agree on a set of rules and regulations that would allow them to play a form of football that was essentially Association football ; and continued to play under its own code.
While Harvard's voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play the rugby team of McGill Universityfrom Montrealin a two-game series.
It was agreed that two games would be played on Harvard's Jarvis baseball field in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 14 and 15, Jarvis Field was at the time a patch of land at the northern point of the Harvard campus, bordered by Everett and Jarvis Streets to the north and south, and Oxford Street and Massachusetts Avenue to the east and west. The Harvard students took to the rugby rules and adopted them as their own,    The games featured a round ball instead of a rugby-style oblong ball.
Inasmuch as Rugby football had been transplanted to Canada from England, the McGill team played under a set of rules which allowed a player to pick up the ball and run with it whenever he wished. Another rule, unique to McGill, was to count tries the act of grounding the football past the opposing team's goal line; it is important to note that there was no end zone during this timeas well as goals, in the scoring.
In the Rugby rules of the time, a try only provided the attempt to kick a free goal from the field. If the kick was missed, the try did not score any points itself. Harvard—Tufts, Harvard—Yale [ edit ] Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football.
The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. The two teams agreed to play under a set of rules called the "Concessionary Rules", which involved Harvard conceding something to Yale's soccer and Yale conceding a great deal to Harvard's rugby. They decided to play with 15 players on each team. On November 13,Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won At the first The Game as the annual contest between Harvard and Yale came to be named the future "father of American football" Walter Camp was among the spectators in attendance.
Walter, who would enroll at Yale the next year, was torn between an admiration for Harvard's style of play and the misery of the Yale defeat, and became determined to avenge Yale's defeat. Spectators from Princeton also carried the game back home, where it quickly became the most popular version of football. Three of the schools—Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton—formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting.
Yale initially refused to join this association because of a disagreement over the number of players to be allowed per team relenting in and Rutgers were not invited to the meeting. The rules that they agreed upon were essentially those of rugby union at the time with the exception that points be awarded for scoring a trynot just the conversion afterwards extra point. Incidentally, rugby was to make a similar change to its scoring system 10 years later. Father of American football[ edit ] Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.
Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in The motion was rejected at that time but passed in The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength. Camp's most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterbackwas also passed in Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center.
Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass. Inrugby league introduced a four-tackle rule changed in to a six-tackle rule based on Camp's early down-and-distance rules. Camp's new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down.
Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp's original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. At the rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football into the distinct sport of American football.
Several times inCamp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdownstwo points for safeties, and five for field goals.
Camp's innovations in the area of point scoring influenced rugby union's move to point scoring in