Sacagawea | HistoryNet
francinebavay.info casts a light on Sacagawea, Shoshone interpreter, Around the age of 12, Sacagawea was captured by Hidatsa Indians, an enemy of the Shoshones. Often called the Corps of Discovery, the Lewis and Clark Expedition Lewis and Clark met Charbonneau and quickly hired him to serve. Facts, information and articles about Sacagawea, a Famous Woman In History Sacagawea Facts Born Lemhi river Valley Died December 20, at Fort Lisa. Sacagawea was pregnant for the first time and was married to Charbonneau. What their Corps of Discovery accomplished–essentially opening up all the. Sacagawea was the only woman in the Corps of Discovery. After meeting Sacagawea and her husband, the Corps traveled west from North Dakota, 15 to 20 Photo credits (top to bottom): Illustration by Ed Vebell / Getty Images; Jean- Erick.
The boat in which she was sailing nearly capsized when a squall hit and Charbonneau, the navigator, panicked. In appreciation, Lewis and Clark named a branch of the Missouri for Sacagawea several days later.
Clark, in particular, developed a close bond with Sacagawea as she and Baptiste would often accompany him as he took his turn walking the shore, checking for obstacles in the river that could damage the boats. She could identify roots, plants and berries that were either edible or medicinal. This eased tensions that might otherwise have resulted in uncooperativeness at best, violence at worst.
After reaching the Pacific, Sacagawea returned with the rest of the Corps and her husband and son—having survived illness, flash floods, temperature extremes, food shortages, mosquito swarms and so much more—to their starting point, the Hidatsa-Mandan settlement, on August 14, Louis, where Charbonneau was taking the kind-hearted Clark up on an offer: Clark would provide the Charbonneau family with land to farm if the parents would agree to let Clark educate Baptiste.
Eventually, she found her way back to the Lemhi Shoshone at the Wind River Indian Reservationwhere she was recorded as "Bazil's mother".
Critics have called into question Hebard's 30 years of research, which led to the biography of the Shoshone woman. However, there is no later record of Lizette among Clark's papers.
It is believed that she died in childhood. He carried lifelong celebrity status as the infant who went with the explorers to the Pacific Ocean and back. There, Jean-Baptiste spent six years living among royaltywhile learning four languages and fathering a child in Germany named Anton Fries. He became a gold miner and a hotel clerk and in led a group of Mormons to California.
He disliked the way Indians were treated in the Missions and left to become a hotel clerk in Auburn, Californiaonce the center of gold rush activity. He was 61 years old, and the trip was too much for him.
He became ill with pneumonia and died in a remote area near Danner, Oregonon May 16, The origin of each tradition is described in the following sections. Lewis and Clark's original journals mention Sacagawea by name seventeen times, spelled eight different ways, each time with a "g". The spelling Sacagawea was established in as the proper usage in government documents by the United States Bureau of American Ethnologyand is the spelling adopted by the United States Mint for use with the dollar coinas well as the United States Board on Geographic Names and the U.
The spelling is used by a large number of historical scholars.
Sakakawea is the official spelling of her name according to the Three Affiliated Tribeswhich include the Hidatsaand is widely used throughout North Dakota where she is considered a state heroinenotably in the naming of Lake Sakakaweathe extensive reservoir of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River.
Her Hidatsa name, which Charbonneau stated meant "Bird Woman," should be spelled "Tsakakawias" according to the foremost Hidatsa language authority, Dr. When this name is anglicized for easy pronunciation, it becomes Sakakawea, "Sakaka" meaning "bird" and "wea" meaning "woman. The spelling authorized for the use of federal agencies by the United States Geographic Board is Sacagawea.The true story of Sacajawea - Karen Mensing
Although not closely following Hidatsa spelling, the pronunciation is quite similar and the Geographic Board acknowledged the name to be a Hidatsa word meaning "Bird Woman. To the contrary, this spelling traces its origin neither through a personal connection with her nor in any primary literature of the expedition.
It has been independently constructed from two Hidatsa Indian words found in the dictionary Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indianspublished by the Government Printing Office. Washington Matthews, 65 years following Sacagawea's death, the words appear verbatim in the dictionary as "tsa-ka-ka, noun; a bird," and "mia [wia, bia], noun; a woman.
The use of this spelling almost certainly originated from the use of the "j" spelling by Nicholas Biddlewho annotated the Lewis and Clark Expedition's journals for publication in This use became more widespread with the publication of the novel The Conquest: It is likely Dye used Biddle's secondary source for the spelling, and her highly popular book made it ubiquitous throughout the United States previously most non-scholars had never even heard of Sacagawea. The Lemhi Shoshone call her Sacajawea.
It is derived from the Shoshone word for her name, Saca tzah we yaa. Also, William Clark and Private George Shannon explained to Nicholas Biddle Published the first Lewis and Clark Journals in about the pronunciation of her name and how the tz sounds more like a "j".
Sacagawea had proved her value again, this time as an interpreter and mediator.
By the end of August, she had bid farewell to her brother and was continuing westward with her husband and the explorers. Although it was still technically summer, the travelers faced snow, cold and near starvation before they finally reached a Nez Perce village on the other side of the mountains in present-day Idaho. From this point on in the westward journey, Sacagawea was no doubt as unfamiliar with the geographic features as the others.
10 Little-Known Facts About the Lewis and Clark Expedition
She certainly was not someone who could guide them to the West coast. Still, her presence—and that of her baby—was important. Clark wrote in his journal entry for October 13,that Sacagawea reconsiles all the Indians, as to our friendly intentions—a woman with a party of men is a token of peace.
Relations were friendly with the Nez Perce people. Starvation was no longer a concern, but after they had stuffed themselves on camas a root the Nez Perces used to make bread and salmon, indigestion and diarrhea were.
Still, they were able to make new canoes and to gain information from the Nez Perces about the path, or rivers, ahead. On November 15,they saw the shine of the Pacific…after this the expedition raised the Stars and Stripes above the great Pacific Ocean. The 23 men, the usually drunk French-Canadian Charbonneau, Sacajawea and her son Pomp had a very hard winter there on the coast, White wrote.
Food was scarce, and Sacajawea gave a starving and sick Clark some bread she had been carrying with her in a little leather pouch that had been intended for her child.
One day in January, Clark and some of the others, including Sacagawea, ventured from camp to check out a beached whale. The starving men came upon a beached whale and began to overeat, not realizing how the concentrated fats and oils would affect their bodies, White wrote.
They became deathly ill. Years later, the men would tell the story of how they would have surely died had it not been for a little Indian girl who somehow miraculously was able to know what the dying men needed to recover. Sacajawea spent days upon end searching for and trying to grow and cultivate fennel roots,…a perennial herb of the carrot family…for its aromatic seeds.
At one of the Indian camps, Clark noticed an exquisitely made sea otter coat. He had to have it! Nevertheless, he lost his head and offered whatever they had left…to the Indian woman for the beautiful fur coat. He must have it…they must see it in St. Louis and the president of the United States [Jefferson] must see it. Unfortunately, the Indian woman was not tempted to trade with Clark. She shook her head and made negative motions with her hand. The coat was not for sale. She walked away leaving a dejected and disappointed Clark, who went to his tent to lick his wounds.
The next morning, as the camp and men were packing up…they noticed that Sacajawea was missing. She was nowhere to be found. The men were concerned. They were standing around discussing where to go to look for her when they saw her come over the hill from the Indian camp carrying something on her arm.
Sacagawea - HISTORY
She walked over to Clark and, smiling at him, handed him the beautiful sea otter coat…. Clark noticed for the first time that the old brown buffalo robe that she wore was hanging loose on her where before it had been drawn tight around her waist with a beautiful beaded turquoise belt. Sacajawea looked back again at Clark before hoisting her son upon her back… Sacajawea had known that the Indian woman with the sea otter coat would probably want the beautiful turquoise belt, too, just like she did.
After a night of bartering and discussions she had unselfishly traded her precious belt for a fur coat her white friend wanted so much.
The Corps of Discovery finally left Fort Clatsop on March 23,heading east and passing many familiar landmarks.