The study aims to investigate the characteristics of the relationships between travel agencies (TA) and tour operators (TO). Through an empirical analysis, we. Is this trend likely to endure? General Tours exec Bob Drumm discusses tour operators' changing relationships with travel agents, including. Despite the long history of the relationship between hotels and tour operators/ travel agents, they have not developed a very satisfactory.
The gathered data was checked, coded and entered into SPSS for analysis. The results are shown in Table 2 and discussed in the subsequent paragraphs. Second, participants were asked about the amount of transactions in a form of percentage of their overall business achieved through their business relationship. On the other hand, Third, participants were asked to indicate the degree that reflects their satisfaction about hotel-tour operator business relationship on a five-degree scale.
Fourth, participants were asked to describe the success of their business relationship on a five-response scale. More than half of the approached hotels On the other side, the results of the tour operator survey showed that In general, the mean rating of perceived success about the relationship revealed that hotels perceived the relationship to be slightly successful with a mean of 3.
In addition, a chi-square test was performed to examine the relation between business volume and relationship satisfaction Table 3. This result contradicts with the conclusion of the study of Khuong which revealed that high frequency of business interactions is crucial for maintaining a successful business relationship.
Also, a significant proportion of these enterprises reported neutral regarding the satisfaction and success of the hotel-tour operator relationship, with small percentage reporting their relationship to be satisfactory and successful, indicating that the business relationship was not as satisfactory and successful as it should be and it needs to be improved.
Perceived satisfaction and success of the relationship. The results are shown in Table 4 and discussed in the following paragraphs. This result is supported by Medina-Munoz. A total of four factors out of 12 had recorded significant differences. The results showed that there were significant differences of the mean score of: The combined analysis of both perspectives, i. In order to narrow down these factors to few three to six as suggested previously in the literaturefactors with a mean of importance less than 3.
In other words, any factor should score a mean of importance more than 3. Some of the CSFs concluded from the combined analysis Table 6 in this study are supported by results of previous studies, while other factors contradict previous studies.
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The reason for this disagreement may be that CSFs for the business relationship can vary among different contexts or geographical regions. CSFs for the hotel-tour operator relationship separate perspectives.
Results of the independent samples t-test. CSFs for a successful relationship unified perspective.
The reasons they provided were categorized into two main sets: This result is supported by the results of Buhalis on conflicts between hotels and tour operators in the Mediterranean region which revealed that hotels struggled against the power of the tour operators. This conclusion concurs with the results of the study of Lee. Reasons for unsatisfactory relationship. This result agrees with the results of the studies of Bogdanovych and De Jager that a significant proportion of travellers as well as tourism service suppliers tend to directly book their tourist services using online channels.
Experiencing a failure business relationship. Reasons for relationship termination. Conclusions This study has concluded some significant implications. This result concurs with previous studies on hotelintermediaries relationship, particularly the study of Medina-Munoz. These mutual CSFs included: Third, it can be noticed that CSFs for the hotel-intermediaries business relationship can vary among different contexts or geographical regions.
This is because the CSFs suggested in this study are slightly different than the factors suggested by previous studies conducted in different geographical regions, such as: In some cases, these reasons could lead to termination of the business relationship.
These issues involved factors such as: Generally, this research paper has fulfilled its aims. The implications of this research contribute to theory, through filling gap knowledge, and to practice, through the proposed model and its recommendations.
The Difference between Tour Operators and Travel Agents
A proposed model of CSFs for the business relationship between hotels and tour operators. On 10 MarchD'Angelis tested the aircraft in the suburb of Pallavaram, making it the first flight ever in Asia. While demonstrating it to the public during the ticketed show, he even took a person from the crowd on the aircraft as his passenger.
Immediately, he also arranged a public viewing at the Island Grounds, charging entrance fees for the demonstration. One more test flight was conducted at the Island Grounds inwhen J. Madley, a water works engineer, tested an aircraft assembled by him.
He flew it over the Red Hills reservoir to inspect works and shot a couple of aerial photographs of the reservoir from the aircraft.
This incident kindled an interest in flying among prominent residents of the city, resulting in the arrival of a set of aviators in to display the flying machines they had brought with them to India as a marketing initiative.
The aviators included Baron de Caters and Jules Tyck. On 15 FebruaryTyck flew in a Bleriot airplane in front of the public. The aircraft was wheeled out by eight men with Tyck seated inside the craft wearing an oilskin coat and goggles. The men held the plane till its engine revved up and then let go, and the craft darted forward about 20 yards before rising into the air. In the air, the craft made a straight flight only for about three-quarters of the length of the ground and descended due to poor weather.
Tyck few again the next day, this time reaching a height of 2, feet, which was witnessed by the then Governor of Madras Sir Arthur Lawley.
Two days later, on 18 February, another demonstration was given by Baron de Caters, when he flew his aircraft in public. The history of civil aviation in India began in Decemberwith the opening of the first domestic air route between Karachi and Delhi by the Indian state Air services in collaboration with the Imperial Airways, United Kingdom.
However, it was just an extension of London—Karachi flight of the Imperial Airways. Inthe first Indian airline, Tata Sons Ltd, started a regular airmail service between Karachi and Madras without any patronage from the government, marking the beginning of air transportation in the southern part of India.
The club had 71 founding members, of whom 14 were Indians. Hawker became the club's first flight instructor.
The club's first Indian chief pilot instructor, Mohammed Ismail Khan, trained several pilots, some of whom were trained professionally or others simply for fun. Among those who trained for hobby included S. When the state council of Ceylon built an aerodrome at Ratnamala near Colombo inthe first flight to land there was flown by chief flying instructor of the club Tyndale Biscoe. On 26 OctoberCaptain V.
Sundaram, who got the first commercial pilot license, flew a De Havilland Dove aircraft from Karachi to Madras.
On 15 Octoberwhen J. Tata, founder of Tata Sons Ltd. Facilities offering hospitality to travelers have been a feature of the earliest civilizations. In Greco-Roman culture hospitals for recuperation and rest were built at thermal baths.
During the Middle Ages various religious orders at monasteries and abbeys would offer accommodation for travelers on the road. The precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe, possibly dating back to the rule of Ancient Rome. These would provide for the needs of travelers, including food and lodging, stabling and fodder for the traveler's horse s and fresh horses for the mail coach.
Famous London examples of inns include the George and the Tabard.
A typical layout of an inn had an inner court with bedrooms on the two sides, with the kitchen and parlor at the front and the stables at the back. For a period of about years from the midth century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travelers in other words, a roadhouse.
The Difference between Tour Operators and Travel Agents - Tenon Tours
Coaching inns stabled teams of horses for stagecoaches and mail coaches and replaced tired teams with fresh teams. Traditionally they were seven miles apart but this depended very much on the terrain. Some English towns had as many as ten such inns and rivalry between them was intense, not only for the income from the stagecoach operators but for the revenue for food and drink supplied to the International Research Journal of Commerce Arts and Science http: By the end of the century, coaching inns were being run more professionally, with a regular timetable being followed and fixed menus for food.
Taj Connemara was originally built as the Imperial Hotel in under the proprietorship of Triplicane Rathinavelu Mudaliar, renamed Albany in when it was leased to two other Mudaliar brothers, and re-established as The Connemara innamed after the then Madras Governor duringRobert Bourke, baron of Connemara, a county in Ireland, later becoming a Spencer's hotel.
InEugene Oakshott, owner of Spencer's, then a little shop near Anna Circle, bought the hotel and its nine acres to build a showroom. Oakshott wanted to give Spencer's a facelift, so he decided to build one of Asia's biggest departmental store. In the s, James Stiven, director of Spencer's, modernised the hotel starting inand the modernisation was completed in It sported an art deco look when it was reopened in The tower block and linking pool was designed by architect Geoffrey Bawa in This savvy entrepreneur affixed a mileage meter to the left front wheel of the vehicle and would charge renters a total of 10 cents a mile in order to cover the wear and tear on his beloved Ford.
It didn't take long for Saunders to realize he'd stumbled onto a lucrative business idea. BySaunders' independent car rental company had grow to include operations In 21 states. In this age of cutthroat competition, airlines companies keep the recognized travel Agents in their fold by offering various kinds of assistance. They arrange for the training and development of staff of the travel agencies, offer management technology, provide special incentives like increase in percentage commission and rebate, offering credit to the reliable Travel Agents and providing them value added services.
However, a section of the travel Agents ranging from This is due to the fact that while assisting the Travels Agents, Airlines take into their consideration, the turnover of the Travel Agents their quality of passenger enable the passenger a comfortable travel. These Agents who could not avail of the assistance from the Airlines are short of the yardstick fixed by the Airlines for rendering such assistance.
In the case of domestic Airlines also, they assist the Travel agents in similar fashion Partnership between Agents and Airlines is 3 business partnership, each one dependent on the other for the furtherance of its commercial interests. It was considered worthwhile to request Agents to give their inputs on Airlir. Several airlines follow a biased policy in dealing with the travel Agents. Travel Agents complain that the Airlines undertake inequitable deals with different Agents; the payment of their commission is delayed.
Therefore, these factors are analyzed The Airlines enter into inequitable deals with different travel Agents. Different Agents enter into different type of agreements with the Airlines. There is no uniform policy followed by the Airlines in dealing with the Travel Agents. Another complaint is that there is delay in payment of their commission by the Airlines.
The survey points out that only 9. However, nowadays Agents remit the amount to the Airlines after taking their commission. This is called as 'Cut and Pay' system.
Therefore, the majority of the Travel Agents do not voice this complaint. There is another complaint leveled against the Airlines. When the tickets booked are cancelled, the amount due to the customer is not refunded in time. The explanation from the Airlines in this regard is that when the tickets are booked through the General Sales Agents GSA who does not have a locus standing in the airline travel business, such delays occur.