Simplified scheme of phylogenetic relationships within termites (based on Engel et al. and process of lignocellulose digestion, and the ability to disrupt this function has potential use. for termite flagellates belonging to Endomicrobia (phylum. Duarte et al. 28 . highlights the origin of termites from a cockroach-. While it is worth considering what stage or stages termite systems may have 2. it is not clear whether some or all intestinal flagellates are genuine mutualists. Termite gut prokaryotes efficiently support lignocelluloses degradation. share a common goal-to degrade lignocelluloses into different applicable products. it create the symbiotic relationship of termites with the intestinal flagellates and.
In addition, the distribution of Drywood termites, Subterranean termites, Formosan termites, and Dampwood termites is varying by region. Drywood termites are live in the countries that do not reach freezing temperatures during winter and they are found along East Coast from the Mid-Atlantic States to South Florida, along the Gulf Coast, through the Southwest into California, and in Hawaii.
The Subterranean termites which live in the soil underground; are able to survive in wide range of temperatures. In US, the subterranean termites are found in every state, except Alaska. As a pest of forest tree, Dampwood termites are rarely damage wood in buildings. They do not nest in the soil but mainly nest in decaying stumps, logs and eucalypt trees. In Malaysia alone, it is estimated there could be species of termites representing 48 genera that live in different habitats in the country Tho, A termite can correspond to up biomass of invertebrates in decomposing trunks Bandeira and Torres, At least ten identified species are known to invade wooden structures, paper products, cotton clothings or ornamental trees.
Other essentially threatening species in Malaysia include Odontotermes sp. The Mastotermitidae, Kalotermitidae, Termopsidae, Hodotermitidae and Rhinotermitidae families are identified as the lower termites, whilst the Serritermitidae, and Termitidae families are acknowledged as the higher termites.
The main difference between higher and lower termites is the gut of lower termites comprises with protozoa, while the gut of higher termites is lack of protozoa Varma et al. In the digestive tracts of lower termites, degrading of cellulose is depend on flagellates, yeasts and bacteria Breznak and Brune, ; Varma et al. The higher termites are able to decompose cellulose by using their own enzymes Ohkuma, through the gut passage.
Scientists discovered that diets and digestion of cellulose seems to differ between higher and lower termites. In addition, most of the species of lower termites are wood-feeding termite. The digestion resistance of woods causes the termites to favour wood that has been attacked by fungi. With the presence of fungi mycelia, the woods are richer in protein content and easier to be utilised by termites. By digestion of lignocelluloses and extract their dietary requirements from food resources, it create the symbiotic relationship of termites with the intestinal flagellates and bacteria contained in a large dilatation of their hindgut, which is the paunch.
By contrast, higher termites do not harbour flagellates and typically lack protists hence show different feeding habits. Higher termites decompose cellulose efficiently in the absence of hindgut flagellate protozoa Li et al.
The Termitidae ingest a wide range of materials include leaves, roots, grass, dung, and soil humus Wood and Johnson, In addition, there are two groups in Termitidae, fungus-cultivating species and non-fungus-cultivating species. The fungus-cultivating species of termites are able to build a large fungal garden in their nests.
The garden is constructed by assembly partially digested plant materials and further digested by fungal mycelium Wood and Thomas, Hence, the termite workers eat the fungus comb which contained nutrition. The main challenge facing lignocellulosic materials utilization is the energy, costs input involved in treatment and production processes.
Therefore, researches have expanded on the potential of the termite-based biological pretreatment strategy for use in lignocelluloses degradation. Termites efficiently digest lignocellulose using their endogenous and digestive enzymes in the termite gut Breznak and Brune, ; Watanabe et al. The symbiotic digestion of polysaccharides by termites is involving a complex of host and its gut microbiota, which comprises bacteria, fungi, protozoa to degrade cellulose and hemicelluloses Radek, ; Brune, The symbioses in the termite gut are often beneficial to both partners and so are called a mutualistic relationship.
Sometimes neither partner can live without the other, so the relationship is called an obligate symbiosis. The protozoans and the bacteria and archeae that live insided them often depend upon one another and cannot live without each other, so they are an example of an obligate symbiosis. The bacteria and archaea that live inside their partner are also called endosymbionts"endo-" meaning "within.
Termites & Intestinal Flagellates by shanice anderson on Prezi
Bacteria and archaea are about a ten times smaller and appear as small specks in these photos. None of these organisms have a color and are largely transparent.
To photograph them without using dyes to stain them which would kill them we used a special kind of microscope that uses Nomarski optics to distinguish the microbes from the surrounding water. This gives three-dimensional images of the microbes. Photos courtesy of Dan Gage The protozoans come in a variety of shapes and move around rapidly.
These are their flagella that they use to move. They consume wood particles through the larger end of the cell. They cannot break down the wood by themselves. They harbor bacteria inside them that do this for them and some of the chemical products that those bacteria produce are used as food by. This is an example of a symbiosis or "living together".
Symbiosis in Termites - biology4friends
Personympha vertens or maybe Personympha minor? You be the judge. Microjoenia Holomastigotes elongatum Many of the bacteria in the termite gut live closely associated with the protozoans, sometimes on their surface or inside the protozoan cells. They aid in digestion of food and disposal of waste products. In these photos, the bacteria were stained with a dye that stains DNA so they show up as small white or grey spots.