Specific volume - Wikipedia
the second one is unit volume approach where the total volume is set as 1. a relation between water content, void ratio and specific gravity of solids; this is for. Unless otherwise stated in the individual monograph, the specific gravity the ratio of the weight of a liquid in air at 25° to that of an equal volume of water at the Adjust the temperature of the liquid to about 20°, and fill the pycnometer with it. Volume is the space occupied by an particular object, or amount of space, which is needed to fit the object in. Density of an object is the mass of object per unit.
The temperature, pressure, and volume at this point are called the "critical" values for that species.
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Location C on Fig. The critical temperature and pressure are unique values for each species and are useful in correlating physical properties. Critical constants for some of the commonly occurring hydrocarbons and other components of natural gas can be found in Table 1. Table 1 - Some physical constants of hydrocarbons. However, slightly different standards are sometimes used in different locations and in different units.
The ideal gas laws can be used to show that the specific gravity ratio of densities is also equal to the ratio of the molecular weights. By convention, specific gravities of all gases at all pressures are usually set equal to the ratio of the molecular weight of the gas to that of air Although specific gravity is still frequently used, this traditional term is not used under the SI system; it has been replaced by "relative density.
Analyses also can be expressed in terms of the volume, weight, or pressure fraction of each component present. Under limited conditions, where gaseous mixtures conform reasonably well to the ideal gas laws, the mole fraction can be shown to be equal to the volume fraction but not to the weight fraction.
The apparent molecular weight of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the mole fraction times the molecular weight of each component. It is measured easily at the wellhead in the field and therefore is used as an indication of the composition of the gas.
The specific gravity of gas is proportional to its molecular weight Mg if it is measured at low pressures where gas behavior approaches ideality. Specific gravity also has been used to correlate other physical properties of natural gases. To do this, it is necessary to assume that the analyses of gases vary regularly with their gravities. Specific Volume The specific volume of a substance is the volume per unit mass, the reciprocal of the density.
Specific Gravity The specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to that of a reference substance. Because specific gravity is a ratio, it is often treated as a dimensionless quantity -- but strictly speaking the units do not completely cancel, and there are some problems where it is useful to carry them along. Usually the reference substance for solids and liquids is water at 4 degrees Celsius.
For gases, the usual reference density is that of air. The petroleum industry has traditionally used 60 degrees Fahrenheit as the reference point.
This won't matter much in this class, but you need to be careful if you consult reference works. Since density varies with temperature, many workers like the added precision of specifying the temperatures involved. They might write a specific gravity value as: You have a drum containing 8. What is the mass of the liquid? Flow Rates We generally want to know how much material is coming into or out of a process, so we measure the "flow rate": The dot is often used to mark a "rate" per unit time.
Volumetric flowrates are indicated by V, Q, or F. Usually, the volumetric flow rate is the easiest to measure.
Specific gravity (video) | Fluids | Khan Academy
It can then be converted to mass flow rate using the density: Most industrial flow measurement devices really measure the flow velocity. The volumetric flow rate is then calculated from the velocity and the cross-sectional area of the pipe: Doing this makes some assumptions about the velocity distribution, but for the most part we'll wait until our fluid mechanics course to worry about those. Moles A Mole is a measure of quantity of substance or the number of particles.
A gram-mole mol, gmol of a species is the amount of a species whose mass in grams is numerically the same as its molecular weight.