Camus and Sartre: The Story of a Friendship and the Quarrel that Ended It
Sartre vs Camus: how radically opposed ideas of freedom broke up the philosophical friendship of the 20th century. and critic. He had an enduring personal relationship with fellow philosopher Simone de Beauvoir. 2 Quotes about Sartre; 3 See also; 4 External links. Albert Camus Sartre is a philosopher whose versatility spans all forms of literary genre, from novels to plays, journalism to literary criticism. . He does this in silence, for “Silence itself is defined in relationship to words, as the pause in music.
He said he did not wish to be "transformed" by such an award, and did not want to take sides in an East vs. West cultural struggle by accepting an award from a prominent Western cultural institution.
Jean-Paul Sartre in Venice in Though his name was then a household word as was "existentialism" during the tumultuous sSartre remained a simple man with few possessions, actively committed to causes until the end of his life, such as the May strikes in Paris during the summer of during which he was arrested for civil disobedience.
President Charles de Gaulle intervened and pardoned him, commenting that "you don't arrest Voltaire ". I would like [people] to remember Nausea, [my plays] No Exit and The Devil and the Good Lord, and then my two philosophical works, more particularly the second one, Critique of Dialectical Reason.
Then my essay on GenetSaint Genet. If these are remembered, that would be quite an achievement, and I don't ask for more.
As a man, if a certain Jean-Paul Sartre is remembered, I would like people to remember the milieu or historical situation in which I lived, He suffered from hypertension,  and became almost completely blind in Sartre was a notorious chain smokerwhich could also have contributed to the deterioration of his health.
At his funeral on Saturday, 19 April, 50, Parisians descended onto Boulevard Montparnasse to accompany Sartre's cortege. Sartre was initially buried in a temporary grave to the left of the cemetery gate. Being and Nothingness Sartre's primary idea is that people, as humans, are "condemned to be free". Sartre says that if one considered a paper cutter, one would assume that the creator would have had a plan for it: Sartre said that human beings have no essence before their existence because there is no Creator.
We need to experience "death consciousness" so as to wake up ourselves as to what is really important; the authentic in our lives which is life experience, not knowledge. Taking a page from the German phenomenological movement, he believed that our ideas are the product of experiences of real-life situations, and that novels and plays can well describe such fundamental experiences, having equal value to discursive essays for the elaboration of philosophical theories such as existentialism.
How Camus and Sartre split up over the question of how to be free
With such purpose, this novel concerns a dejected researcher Roquentin in a town similar to Le Havre who becomes starkly conscious of the fact that inanimate objects and situations remain absolutely indifferent to his existence. As such, they show themselves to be resistant to whatever significance human consciousness might perceive in them.
He also took inspiration from phenomenologist epistemology, explained by Franz Adler in this way: Any action implies the judgment that he is right under the circumstances not only for the actor, but also for everybody else in similar circumstances.
Hence the "nausea" referred to in the title of the book; all that he encounters in his everyday life is suffused with a pervasive, even horrible, taste—specifically, his freedom. The book takes the term from Friedrich Nietzsche 's Thus Spoke Zarathustrawhere it is used in the context of the often nauseating quality of existence. No matter how much Roquentin longs for something else or something different, he cannot get away from this harrowing evidence of his engagement with the world.
The novel also acts as a terrifying realization of some of Immanuel Kant 's fundamental ideas about freedom; Sartre uses the idea of the autonomy of the will that morality is derived from our ability to choose in reality; the ability to choose being derived from human freedom; embodied in the famous saying "Condemned to be free" as a way to show the world's indifference to the individual.
The freedom that Kant exposed is here a strong burden, for the freedom to act towards objects is ultimately useless, and the practical application of Kant's ideas proves to be bitterly rejected.
Also important is Sartre's analysis of psychological concepts, including his suggestion that consciousness exists as something other than itself, and that the conscious awareness of things is not limited to their knowledge: He attended plays, read novels, and dined [with] women. And he was published. By forging Mathieu as an absolute rationalistanalyzing every situation, and functioning entirely on reason, he removed any strands of authentic content from his character and as a result, Mathieu could "recognize no allegiance except to [him]self",  though he realized that without "responsibility for my own existence, it would seem utterly absurd to go on existing".
Mathieu was restrained from action each time because he had no reasons for acting. Sartre then, for these reasons, was not compelled to participate in the Spanish Civil Warand it took the invasion of his own country to motivate him into action and to provide a crystallization of these ideas.
It was the war that gave him a purpose beyond himself, and the atrocities of the war can be seen as the turning point in his public stance. The war opened Sartre's eyes to a political reality he had not yet understood until forced into continual engagement with it: Justice is a human issue, and I do not need a god to teach it to me. Orestes, Act 2 Commoners are weightless. But he was a royal bon vivant who, no matter what, always weighed kilos. King Aegistheus to Jupiter, Act 2 Blood doubly unites us, for we share the same blood and we have spilled blood.
Orestes to Electra, Act 2 But, if it will help ease your irritated souls, please know, dearly departed, that you have ruined our lives.
Aegistheus, Act 2 It is for the sake of order that I seduced Clytemnestra, for the sake of order that I killed my king. I wanted for order to rule and that it rule through me.
I have lived without desire, without love, without hope: Aegistheus, Act 2 Understand me: I wish to be a man from somewhere, a man among men. You see, a slave, when he passes by, weary and surly, carrying a heavy load, limping along and looking down at his feet, only at his feet to avoid falling down; he is in his town, like a leaf in greenery, like a tree in a forest, argos surrounds him, heavy and warm, full of herself; I want to be that slave, Electra, I want to pull the city around me and to roll myself up in it like a blanket.
I will not leave. Orestes to Electra, Act 2 I have no need for good souls: Electra to her brother Orestes, Act 2 He is dead, and my hatred has died with him. Electra, before the dead Aegistheus, Act 2 Jupiter: I committed the first crime by creating men as mortals. After that, what more could you do, you the murderers?
Come on; they already had death in them: How I hate the crimes of the new generation: Jupiter to Orestes, Act 2 The painful secret of gods and kings is that men are free, Aegistheus. You know it and they do not.
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- Jean-Paul Sartre
Jupiter, Act 2 Aegistheus, the kings have another secret Once liberty has exploded in the soul of a man, the Gods can do nothing against that man. It is a matter for men to handle amongst themselves, and it is up to other men — and to them alone — to let him flee or to destroy him. Orestes to Electra, Act 2 Jupiter: I gave you the liberty to serve me. That is possible, but it has turned against you and there is nothing either one of us can do about it.
Act 3 I came to claim my kingdom and you refused me because I was not one of you. Now I am one of you, my subjects, we are bound by blood, and I deserve to be your king. Your sins and your remorse, your mighty anguish, I take all upon myself. Fear your dead no more, they are my dead. Orestes, Act 3 Remember, Orestes: Your liberty is nothing but a mange eating away at you, it is nothing but an exile. Jupiter, Act 3 We were too light, Electra. Now our feet press down in the earth like the wheels of a cart in its groove.
Come with me, and we will walk heavily, bending under the weight of our heavy load. Orestes, Act 3 Your entire universe will not be enough to make me guilty. You are the king of the Gods, Jupiter, the king of the stones and of the stars, the king of the waves of the sea. But you are not the king of men.
Jean-Paul Sartre: more relevant now than ever
Orestes, Act 3 Jupiter: I am not your king, impudent larva? Who then has created you? But you should not have created me free. Act 3 I am a man, Jupiter, and each man must invent his own path. Orestes, Act 3 You are a tiny little girl, Electra. Other little girls dreamed of being the richest or the most beautiful women of all. And you, fascinated by the horrid destiny of your people, you wished to become the most pained and the most criminal … At your age, children still play with dolls and they play hopscotch.
You, poor child, without toys or playmates, you played murder, because it is a game that one can play alone. Jupiter to Electra, Act 3 Characterizations of Existentialism [ edit ] A propos de l'existentialisme: Mise au Point Action, 29 December In a world, man must create his own essence: Man cannot will unless he has first understood that he must count on no one but himself; that he is alone, abandoned on earth in the midst of his infinite responsibilities, without help, with no other aim than the one he sets himself, with no other destiny than the one he forges for himself on this earth.
With despair, true optimism begins: Better one hundred bites, better the whip, vitriol, than this suffering in the head, this ghost of suffering which grazes and caresses and never hurts enough. We're in hell, my little friend, and there's never any mistake there. People are not damned for nothing. We are in hell, my dear, there is never a mistake and people are not damned for nothing. Je n'aurais jamais cru Pas besoin de gril, l'enfer, c'est les autres.
So that is what hell is. I would never have believed it. There is no need for torture: Hell is other people. Garcin, Act 1, sc. Whom do you think you are fooling? Come on, everyone knows that I threw the baby out of the window. The crystal is shattered on earth, and I do not care.
I am no longer anything but a skin, and my skin does not belong to you. The mouth you wear for hell.
A flame in their hearts. When I am all alone, I am extinguished. When I cannot see myself, even though I touch myself, I wonder if I really exist. Estelle, discovering that there are no mirrors in Hell, Act 1, sc.
I feel you in my bones. Your silence screams in my ears. You may nail your mouth shut, you may cut out your tongue, can you keep yourself from existing? Will you stop your thoughts. Tu n'es rien d'autre que ta vie.
One always dies too soon — or too late. And yet, life is there, finished: You are nothing other than your life. Cowardly or not, as long as he is a good kisser. Estelle on Garcin, Act 1, sc. I refuse to let death hamper life. Death must enter life only to define it. On est ce qu'on veut. A man is what he wills himself to be.
How entirely at ease he feels as a result. How futile and frivolous discussions about the rights of the Jew appear to him. He has placed himself on other ground from the beginning. If out of courtesy he consents for a moment to defend his point of view, he lends himself but does not give himself. He tries simply to project his intuitive certainty onto the plane of discourse.
They know that their remarks are frivolous, open to challenge. But they are amusing themselves, for it is their adversary who is obliged to use words responsibly, since he believes in words. They even like to play with discourse for, by giving ridiculous reasons, they discredit the seriousness of their interlocutors. They delight in acting in bad faith, since they seek not to persuade by sound argument but to intimidate and disconcert.
If you press them too closely, they will abruptly fall silent, loftily indicating by some phrase that the time for argument is past. It is not that they are afraid of being convinced.
They fear only to appear ridiculous or to prejudice by their embarrassment their hope of winning over some third person to their side. He would be incapable of conceiving of a constructive plan; his action cannot reach the level of the methodical; it remains on the ground of passion. His intellectual activity is confined to interpretation; he seeks in historical events the signs of the presence of an evil power.
Jean-Paul Sartre: more relevant now than ever | Books | The Guardian
Out of this spring those childish and elaborate fabrications which give him his resemblance to the extreme paranoiacs. It represents, therefore, a safety valve for the owning classes, who encourage it and thus substitute for a dangerous hate against their regime a beneficent hate against particular people.
If all he has to do is to remove Evil, that means that the Good is already given. He has no need to seek it in anguish, to invent it, to scrutinize it patiently when he has found it, to prove it in action, to verify it by its consequences, or, finally, to shoulder he responsibilities of the moral choice be has made.
The more one is absorbed in fighting Evil, the less one is tempted to place the Good in question. When he has fulfilled his mission as holy destroyer, the Lost Paradise will reconstitute itself.
Existentialism - Wikipedia
He is in the breach, fighting, and each of his outbursts of rage is a pretext to avoid the anguished search for the Good. London What do we mean by saying that existence precedes essence? We mean that man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world—and defines himself afterwards. If man as the existentialist see him is not definable, it is because to begin with he is nothing.
Thus, there is no human nature, because there is no God to have a conception of himself. The existentialist frankly states that man is in anguish. His meaning is as follows-When a man commits himself to anything, fully realizing that he is not only choosing what he will be, but is thereby at the same time a legislator deciding for the whole of mankind-in such a moment a man cannot escape from the sense of complete and profound responsibility.
Marxists, to whom I have said thus have answered: Thus the man who discovers himself directly in the cogito also discovers all the others, and discovers them as the condition of his own existence. I cannot obtain any truth whatsoever about myself, except through the mediation of another.
The other is indispensable to my existence, and equally so to any knowledge I can have of myself. They say nothing, they do not hide under the table, they eat only one sweet at a time, but later on, they make Society pay dearly for it! Jessica, Act 3, sc. Hugo to Slick and Georges, Act 3, sc. I saw them passing my window with their signs: Jessica to her husband Hugo, Act 3, sc. The impatient critic did not have long to wait.
Less than six months later, Sartre's next book fully satisfied him. In Februaryin reviewing Sartre's collection of stories The Wall, Camus enthusiastically hailed Sartre's lucidity, his portrayal of the absurdity of existence, and his depiction of characters whose freedom was useless to them. Their negativity—if anything, stronger in The Wall than in Nausea—now troubled him less. Overwhelmed by their freedom, these people could not overcome absurdity as they bumped up against their own lives.
They had "no attachments, no principles, no Ariadne's thread," because they were unable to act. They gave their reader "that higher, absurd freedom which leads the characters to their own ends. The philosophy and the images were now in balance. Camus's conclusion indicated not only his enthusiasm for the author but his sense of common purpose with a writer who, in his two books, has been able to get straight to the essential problem and bring it to life through his obsessive characters.
A great writer always introduces his own world and its message. Sartre's brings us to nothingness, but also to lucidity.
And the image he perpetuates through his characters, of a man seated amid the ruins of his life, is a good illustration of the greatness and truth of his work.
On his side, all we know for certain is a literary encounter that took place in fall Discovering Camus only weeks after sending off the completed manuscript of Being and Nothingness, he was moved to devote a generous, detailed, 6,word essay to The Stranger.
In this striking article, Sartre reads that book alongside The Myth of Sisyphus, the fiction in relation to the philosophy. As he writes, let us listen to the different voices: The absurd…resides neither in man nor in the world if you consider each separately. But since man's dominant characteristic is "being-in-the-world," the absurd is, in the end, an inseparable part of the human condition.
Thus, the absurd is not, to begin with, the object of a mere idea; it is revealed to us in a doleful illumination. Here Sartre is approvingly summarizing and quoting from a passage near the beginning of The Myth of Sisyphus, where Camus lays out his basic ideas. Surprisingly, the quoted passage sounds like Camus's paraphrase of none other than Roquentin's experience in Nausea. Sartre continues, in apparent agreement with Camus: As we turn the page, Sartre's novel is mentioned explicitly: In a stunning reflection of kinship, Sartre enthusiastically quoted Camus—whose analysis drew upon Sartre.
It is both of their voices at one and the same time. Beyond this kinship, Sartre compared Camus with Kafka and Hemingway, whom he admired, and praised The Stranger for its "skillful construction.
And when we close the book, we realize that it could not have had any other ending. In this world that has been stripped of its causality and presented as absurd, the smallest incident has weight.
There is no single one which does not help to lead the hero to crime and capital punishment. The Stranger is a classical work, an orderly work, composed about the absurd and against the absurd. The author of Nausea obviously admired the imaginative power of The Stranger. The stark simplicity of Camus's language, his ability to evoke the physical, the unforgettable descriptions of the funeral vigil, the next morning's procession, and Meursault's daily routines combine with more disturbing aspects—Meursault's lack of normal human emotion, his mindless murder of the Arab, the prosecutor's outrage at the young man's indifference toward his mother's death, his own defiance of the jury and its sense of propriety, as well the improbability of a death sentence for a white man who has killed an Arab in Algeria—to create the great novel of French Algeria.
Having just completed one of the most original and profound philosophical constructions of the twentieth century, Sartre showed respect for the philosophical essayist who, "by virtue of the cool style of The Myth of Sisyphus" as well as its subject, "takes his place in the great tradition of those French moralists" regarded as Nietzsche's forerunners. Camus briefly dismissed existentialists such as Jaspers, Heidegger, and Kierkegaard en route to insisting that nothing could overcome life's absurdity.
Sartre, on the other hand, had spent years working through the phenomenology of Heidegger and Husserl until he synthesized them in Being and Nothingness into a work that sought to penetrate the very nature of being. Starting with Cartesian individual consciousness, Sartre carefully described basic structures of existence, fundamental human projects, and characteristic patterns of behavior such as bad faith.