# Return on investment and residual income relationship

### The Difference in ROI & Residual Income | Bizfluent Compare and contrast the return on investment and residual income measures of divisional performance. Return on investment (ROI) is very similar to return on. You know this amount as the required rate of return, or the hurdle rate. When residual income is used for evaluation of investment centers. Before understanding the concept and working of residual income along with the on return on investment (ROI) of the division or the Residual income (RI).

Calculations To calculate ROI, investors add the gain from the investment to the cost of the investment. Then they divide this number by the cost of the investment. The cost of the investment is also called average operating assets or the amount invested. To calculate residual income, investors first divide operating income by the average operating assets the investment amount. The last step is to subtract this number from operating income to arrive at the residual income.

The end results of the two calculations are a little different. ROI is expressed as a percentage of the amount of capital invested. Residual income is expressed as an amount in dollars the investment made above the ROI. Types of Information Provided Companies that have policies of evaluating investments based on ROI have begun to switch to the residual income method. The main reason for this is that the residual income method provides more information. Managers look at ROI and make decisions based upon whether the investment meets minimum requirements based upon their yield. It doesn't take into consideration how much money the investment made in addition to the minimum yield. When companies use the residual income method, management is evaluated based on the growth in the residual income from year to year instead of the growth in the rate of return.

Segment managers find a number of expenses listed on their segment's income statement. For purposes of this course, this text will simplify the adjustment to income by limiting the examples to removing only interest expense. The answer to why interest is considered to be uncontrollable lies in how a company is financed. Recall the discussion from an earlier chapter that the first activity that must occur when a company goes into business is financing.

Debt financing occurs when a company obtains long-term loans or issues bonds. Debt creates an interest cost measured using an annual percentage rate. Because interest expense is reported on the income statement, it reduces profit.

### Residual Income (RI)

Equity financing has no interest cost, but investors expect some type of return, either dividends or an increase in shareholder equity. Neither dividends nor stock values have an income statement impact, as they both impact stockholders' equity.

Suppose there are two divisions, the South and the West divisions. Assume the South division is financed by issuing stock. Whether dividends are distributed or not, they are not an expense, leaving the South Division with no financing cost effect on income.

### Chapter 25 - ROI and Residual Income

Assume also that the assets invested in the West division were financed by issuing debt, resulting in interest expense on the West Division's income statement. Because top level executives handle strategic decisions such as financing, segment managers are unable to decide how their respective segments are financed.

Is it fair to punish the West Division's manager with interest expense which causes his profits be lower than the manager of the South Division? To even the playing field, you must remove interest expense from the 'profit' amount so that the means of financing has no impact on how these managers are evaluated.

To calculate NOPAT, you begin with net income and remove interest expense and the related income taxes: The goal is to remove interest as if it had not been part of the net income computation. Because interest was initially subtracted to determine net income, you must add it back. The more expenses a company incurs, the smaller income taxes it must pay.

## Residual Income (RI)

As such, when a company recognizes interest expense, taxable income is reduced, which in turn reduces income taxes expense. Had interest been omitted from the calculation of net income, the amount on which a company calculates its income taxes would be larger.

As such, the income tax effect is removed from interest expense before adding interest to net income. How Assets are Measured The majority of these assets held by a division have a cost of capital associated with them. Think about the accounting equation: There are generally two classifications of assets and two classification of liabilities. Some assets and liabilities are current, while others are long-term.

The classified accounting equation looks like this: Each investment center is expected to generate a return on the assets invested in the respective divisions.