How are monomers, polymers, and macromolecules related to each other? | Socratic
Explain the relationship among atoms, elements, and compounds. oven cleaner, ammonia, bleach; Explain the relationship between monomers and polymers. Monomers are minuscule molecules that are mostly with other monomers to create a large molecule or polymer. Explanation: An example of such is the relation of the monosaccharide glucose (a monomer of sugar) which. Monomers are the building block of polymers. A polymer is basically serial repitition of monomers wither of one type or more than one type.
Imagine the bond between the carbons opening up and attacking another ethylene molecule: The end result is long, virtually endless molecule: The process of making a polymer is called polymerization. A polymer is an example of a macromolecule, the name given to a large molecule. Simple polymers are named after their monomers; the ethylene polymer is formally called poly ethylenealthough in common use, the names are used without parentheses: Because adding one monomer to another forms this polymer, polyethylene is an example of a type of polymer called addition polymers.
One of them, poly ethylene oxideresults not from the opening of a double bond but the opening of a ring in the monomer; the concept of bonding with other monomers, however, is the same.
Draw the polymer that results from the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene. Solution In the case of this monomer, the double bond opens up and joins to other monomers, just as with ethylene.
The polymer that is made has this structure: Answer Another type of polymer is the condensation polymer, which is a polymer made when two different monomers react together and release some other small molecule as a product. We have already seen an example of this, in the formation of an amide bond: Here, H2O is released when the ends of the molecules react to form a polymer.
Related to condensation polymers are the copolymers, polymers made from more than one type of monomer. For example, ethylene and propylene can be combined into a polymer that is a mixture of the two monomers. A common form of synthetic rubber called styrene butadiene rubber SBR is made from two monomers: The physical and chemical properties of polymers vary widely, based on their monomers, structures, and additives.
Among the other properties that can be modified based on these factors include solubility in H2O and other solvents, melting point, flammability, color, hardness, transparency, film thickness, wetability, surface friction, moldability, and particle size—the list goes on. The uses of polymers are almost too numerous to consider. Polymers are used to make everything from toothbrushes to computer cases to automobile parts. Many epoxy-based adhesives are condensation polymers that adhere strongly to other surfaces.
Polyurethane paints and coatings are polymers, as are the polyester fabrics used to make clothing. The product known as Saran Wrap was originally constructed from Saran, a name for poly vinylidene chloridewhich was relatively impervious to oxygen and could be used as a barrier to help keep food fresh. It has since been replaced with polyethylene, which is not as impervious to atmospheric oxygen.
Poly vinyl chloride is the third-most produced polymer [after poly ethylene and poly propylene ] and is used to make everything from plastic tubing to automobile engine parts, water pipes to toys, flooring to waterbeds and pools.
All the polymers we have considered so far are based on a backbone of largely carbon. There is another class of polymers based on a backbone of Si and O atoms; these polymers are called silicones.
The Si atoms have organic groups attached to them, so these polymers are still organic.
What is the relationship between monomers and polymers? Give an example using proteins.
One example of a silicone is as follows: Silicones are used to make oils and lubricants; they are used as sealants for glass objects such as aquariums and films for waterproofing objects.
Solid silicones are heat resistant and rubbery and are used to make cookware and electrical insulation. Some very important biological materials are polymers. Of the three major food groups, polymers are represented in two: Proteins are polymers of amino acids, which are monomers that have an amine functional group and a carboxylic acid functional group.
These two groups react to make a condensation polymer, forming an amide bond: Therefore, extra care must be taken when breaking down a polymer into its monomer units. Proteins being polymers are made up from repeating amide units and therefore named as polyamides. When the monomers get repeated, so do the bonds, hence the name.
The chemical and physical properties of monomers differ from their macroscopic counterparts. Examples of vinyl monomers What is a Polymer As mentioned above, polymers are macromolecules with very high molecular weights built from a large number of repetitive units called monomers. Polymers can be built from a single type of unit or several types of units. However, as the monomer is defined to be the repeating unit, it can be made from a single type or several types.
During the polymerization process, monomer units can be joined in different patterns. Two common categories include step-growth polymerization and chain-growth polymerization.
What are the monomers and polymers of protein? | Socratic
In the step-growth polymerization, each monomer unit adds up one at a time. And in the second method, which is the chain-growth polymerization, few monomer units get together to form short chains before attaching on to the growing polymer.
Polymers are synthesized chemically and are also found naturally. Some of the most common natural polymers are; proteins polyamidesDNA polynucleotideRNA polynucleotideCellulose polysaccharide etc. Examples of synthetic polymers include synthetic rubber, nylon, PVC, polyethylene, polypropylene etc. The polymer acts as a continuous macroscopic material whereas its chemical properties can be defined at the nano-scale, as to how the polymer chains interact through physical forces.
However, the bulk properties of the polymers can be tested from the outside.