statement concerning the question of education and a metaphysics. The discipline of .. and, if they do, whether they bear any substantial relation to the way in. Nietzsche's metaphysics of power and James' metaphysics of pure experience .. Such is the problematic externality of the relationship between education and. which education is rooted, and for the versions of reality and the relationship to nature in which it invites pupils to participate. METAPHYSICS AND EDUCATION: .
For something to change which is an effectit needs to be acted on caused by a previous action. Causality is the law that states that each cause has a specific effect, and that this effect is dependent on the initial identities of the agents involved. We are intuitively aware of change occurring over time e. The Ancient Greeks took some extreme positions on the nature of change: Parmenides denied that change occurs at all, while Heraclitus thought change was ubiquitous.
Currently there are three main theories which deal with the problem of change: Mereological Essentialism assumes that an object's parts are essential to it, and therefore that an object cannot persist through any change of its parts. Perdurantism holds that objects are effectively 4-dimensional entities made up of a series of temporal parts like the frames of a movie it treats the tree, then, as a series of tree-stages. Endurantism, on the other hand, holds that a whole object - and the same object - exists at each moment of its history, so that the same tree persists regardless of how many leaves it loses.
Space and Time Back to Top A traditional Realist position is that time and space have existence independent from the human mind. Idealistshowever, claim that space and time are mental constructs used to organize perceptions, or are otherwise unreal. Descartes and Leibniz believed that, without physical objects, "space" would be meaningless because space is the framework upon which we understand how physical objects are related to each other.
Sir Isaac Newton, on the other hand, argued for an absolute space "container space"which can continue to exist in the absence of matter. With the work of Sir Albert Einstein, the pendulum swung back to relational space in which space is composed of relations between objects, with the implication that it cannot exist in the absence of matter.
Although Parmenides denied the flow of time completely in ancient times, echoed more recently by the British Idealist J.
Metaphysics - By Branch / Doctrine - The Basics of Philosophy
McTaggart -much debate in both philosophy and physics has centered on the direction of time "time's arrow"and whether it is reversible or symmetrical. This is sometimes considered a whole separate branch of philosophy, the Philosophy of Religion see that section for more detail. Does the Divine intervene directly in the world Theismor is its sole function to be the first cause of the universe Deism? Is there one God Monotheismmany gods Polytheism or no gods Atheism or Humanismor is it impossible to know Agnosticism?
Does religious belief depend on faith and revelation Fideismor on reason Deism? Within Western Philosophy, Philosophy of Religionand theology in general, reached its peak with Medieval Christian schools of thought like Scholasticism.
Necessity and Possibility Back to Top A necessary fact is true across all possible worlds that is, we could not imagine it to be otherwise.
A possible fact is one that is true in some possible world, even if not in the actual world. This idea of possible worlds was first introduced by Gottfried Leibnizalthough others have dealt with it in much more detail since, notably the American analytic philosopher David Lewis - in his theory of Modal Realism.
Metaphysics of Education | Synonym
The concept of necessity and contingency another term used in philosophy to describe the possibility of something happening or not happening is also central to some of the arguments used to justify the existence or non-existence of God, notably the Cosmological Argument from Contingency see the section on Philosophy of Religion for more details.
Realismbest exemplified by Plato and his Platonic Forms, teaches that universals really exist, independently and somehow prior to the world. On the other hand, Nominalism holds that there is really no such thing as abstract objects, which really exist only as names, because a single object cannot exist in multiple places simultaneously.
Moderate Realismas espoused by Aristotle among others, tries to find some middle ground between Nominalism and Realismand holds that there is no realm as such in which universals exist, but rather they are located in space and time wherever they happen to be manifest.
Conceptualism, the doctrine that universals exist only within the mind and have no external or substantial reality, is also an intermediate solution. Other positions such as Formalism and Fictionalism do not attribute any existence to mathematical entities, and are anti- Realist.
The Philosophy of Mathematics overlaps with metaphysics in this area. Determinism and Free Will Back to Top Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences.
Thus, there is at any instant only one physically possible future, and no random, spontaneous, mysterious or miraculous events ever occur. This posits that there is no such thing as Free Will, where rational agents can exercise control over their own actions and decisions. Incompatibilists or Hard Determinists like Baruch Spinozaview determinism and free will as mutually exclusive. Others, labeled Compatibilists or Soft Deterministslike Thomas Hobbesbelieve that the two ideas can be coherently reconciled.
It should be noted that Determinism does not necessarily mean that humanity or individual humans have no influence on the future that is known as Fatalismjust that the level to which human beings have influence over their future is itself dependent on present and past. Cosmology and Cosmogony Back to Top Cosmology is the branch of metaphysics that deals with the world as the totality of all phenomena in space and time.
Historically, it was often founded in religion; in modern use it addresses questions about the world and the universe which are beyond the scope of physical science.
Cosmogony deals specifically with the origin of the universe, but the two concepts are closely related.
Metaphysics of Education
Pantheistssuch as Spinozabelieve that God and the universe are one and the same. Metaphysics of Education By Alexander Eliot The metaphysics of education can be understood from the various perspectives of epistemology -- a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of knowledge. This includes the way knowledge is acquired, as well as the thoroughness and limitations of knowledge.
The study of epistemology can be applied to the metaphysics of educational instruction. Externalism Externalism postulates that factors external to the human mind are conditions on which to base knowledge.
For example, an externalist would argue an appeal to factual information about the external world is necessary to justify what is considered internal knowledge. In the case of educational metaphysics, an externalist approach to instruction emphasizes factual, information-based learning.
Externalist sentiments are common in fields of study such as mathematics and science, in which numerical objectivity and empirical experimentation are used to develop the student's knowledge of the subject. Internalism Internalism is the view in which knowledge is seen to be created within the internal, psychological state of the student. Descartes based his theory of knowledge on the belief that, in the context of human perception, the external world is created through the senses.
Applied to the metaphysics of education, this theory emphasizes the internal perspective of the student as opposed to a strict teaching of external, objective information.