Zechariah (priest) - Wikipedia
Unlike his mother and stepfather, Jesus was God in the flesh. Wouldn't it be great if all parents and children had this kind of relationship? . Version×, Jesus rebuked the Pharisees for shirking their family responsibilities. On one occasion Jesus was at a banquet at the home of a Pharisee by the . At times people may have to sacrifice their family relationships to. For an accurate understanding of Jesus' relationship with the Pharisees, you must . we can also detect the influence of Hasidic piety upon the family of Jesus .
However, on his deathbed Jannaeus advised his widow, Salome Alexandrato seek reconciliation with the Pharisees. Her brother was Shimon ben Shetach, a leading Pharisee. Josephus attests that Salome was favorably inclined toward the Pharisees, and their political influence grew tremendously under her reign, especially in the Sanhedrin or Jewish Council, which they came to dominate.
After her death her elder son Hyrcanus II was generally supported by the Pharisees. Her younger son, Aristobulus IIwas in conflict with Hyrcanus, and tried to seize power. The Pharisees seemed to be in a vulnerable position at this time. Josephus' account may overstate the role of the Pharisees. As Josephus was himself a Pharisee, his account might represent a historical creation meant to elevate the status of the Pharisees during the height of the Hasmonean Dynasty.
In their day, the influence of the Pharisees over the lives of the common people was strong and their rulings on Jewish law were deemed authoritative by many. The Roman period[ edit ] Main article: Judaea Roman province Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem, by Jean Fouquet According to Josephus, the Pharisees appeared before Pompey asking him to interfere and restore the old priesthood while abolishing the royalty of the Hasmoneans altogether "Ant.
Pharisees also opened Jerusalem's gates to the Romans, and actively supported them against the Sadducean faction. In Rome, Herod sought the support of Mark Antony and Octavianand secured recognition by the Roman Senate as king, confirming the termination of the Hasmonean dynasty.
Herod was an unpopular ruler, perceived as a Roman puppet. The family of Boethuswhom Herod had raised to the high-priesthood, revived the spirit of the Sadducees, and thenceforth the Pharisees again had them as antagonists "Ant. While it stood, the Second Temple remained the center of Jewish ritual life. According to the Torah, Jews were required to travel to Jerusalem and offer sacrifices at the Temple three times a year: The Pharisees, like the Sadducees, were politically quiescent, and studied, taught, and worshiped in their own way.
At this time serious theological differences emerged between the Sadducees and Pharisees. The notion that the sacred could exist outside the Temple, a view central to the Essenes, was shared and elevated by the Pharisees. The Pharisaic legacy[ edit ] At first the values of the Pharisees developed through their sectarian debates with the Sadducees; then they developed through internal, non-sectarian debates over the law as an adaptation to life without the Temple, and life in exile, and eventually, to a more limited degree, life in conflict with Christianity.
Beliefs[ edit ] No single tractate of the key Rabbinic texts, the Mishnah and the Talmudis devoted to theological issues; these texts are concerned primarily with interpretations of Jewish law, and anecdotes about the sages and their values.
Only one chapter of the Mishnah deals with theological issues; it asserts that three kinds of people will have no share in "the world to come: Another passage suggests a different set of core principles: Judah haNasihowever, said that Jews must "be meticulous in small religious duties as well as large ones, because you do not know what sort of reward is coming for any of the religious duties," suggesting that all laws are of equal importance.
In comparison with Christianitythe Rabbis were not especially concerned with the messiah or claims about the messiah or ranking the laws in importance. Monotheism[ edit ] One belief central to the Pharisees was shared by all Jews of the time is monotheism. This is evident in the practice of reciting the Shemaa prayer composed of select verses from the Torah Deuteronomy 6: According to the Mishnah and Talmud, the men of the Great Assembly instituted the requirement that Jews both in Judea and in the diaspora pray three times a day morning, afternoon and eveningand include in their prayers a recitation of these passages in the morning " Shacharit " and evening " Ma'ariv " prayers.
Wisdom[ edit ] Pharisaic wisdom was compiled in one book of the Mishna, Pirkei Avot. The Pharisaic attitude is perhaps best exemplified by a story about the sages Hillel the Elder and Shammaiwho both lived in the latter half of the 1st century BCE. A gentile once challenged Shammai to teach him the wisdom of the Torah while he stood on one foot. Shammai drove him away.
The same gentile approached Hillel and asked of him the same thing. Hillel chastised him gently by saying, "What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow.
That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation — now go and study. This also accords with the statement in Pirkei Avot 3: All is foreseen, but freedom of choice is given". According to Josephus, Pharisees were further distinguished from the Sadducees in that Pharisees believed in the resurrection of the dead.
Afterlife Unlike the Sadducees, who are generally held to have rejected any existence after death, the sources vary on the beliefs of the Pharisees on the afterlife. According to the New Testament the Pharisees believed in the resurrection of the deadbut it does not specify whether this resurrection included the flesh or not.
This was a more participatory or "democratic" form of Judaism, in which rituals were not monopolized by an inherited priesthood but rather could be performed by all adult Jews individually or collectively; whose leaders were not determined by birth but by scholarly achievement.
Many, including some scholars, have characterized the Sadducees as a sect that interpreted the Torah literally, and the Pharisees as interpreting the Torah liberally.
R' Yitzhak Isaac Halevi suggests that this was not, in fact, a matter of religion. He claims that the complete rejection of Judaism would not have been tolerated under the Hasmonean rule and therefore Hellenists maintained that they were rejecting not Judaism but Rabbinic law.
Thus, the Sadducees were in fact a political party not a religious sect. He suggests that two things fundamentally distinguished the Pharisaic from the Sadducean approach to the Torah. A medieval Georgian fresco from Jerusalem.
According to the Gospel of Lukeduring the reign of king Herodthere was a priest named Zechariah, of the course of Abiawhose wife Elizabeth was also of the priestly family of Aaron. The evangelist states that both the parents were righteous before God, since they were "blameless" in observing the commandments and ordinances of the Lord.
When the events related in Luke began, their marriage was still childless, because Elizabeth was "barren", and they were both "well advanced in years" Luke 1: The duties at the temple in Jerusalem alternated between each of the family lines that had descended from those appointed by king David 1st Chronicles The Gospel of Luke states that while Zechariah ministered at the altar of incensean angel of the Lord appeared and announced to him that his wife would give birth to a son, whom he was to name John, and that this son would be the forerunner of the Lord Luke 1: Citing their advanced age, Zechariah asked with disbelief for a sign whereby he would know the truth of this prophecy.
Jesus apparently could just as easily be in the company of a Pharisee as with a despised outcast. On one occasion Jesus was at a banquet at the home of a Pharisee by the name Simon Luke 7: We can safely assume from the social customs of the day that only men were at the table. A woman with an alabaster jar of ointment came into the room to Jesus.
Luke deftly describes her as "a woman in the city, who was a sinner," implying that she may have been a prostitute. She stood behind Jesus, bathed his feet with her tears, dried them with her hair, kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment.
It could not have been much more repulsive than this for the Pharisee. This was a woman of questionable character, who has unashamedly barged into a group of men at dinner. Her hair was down, which indicates that she is a prostitute.
Not only that, she is caressing and kissing the feet of Jesus.
Pharisees - Wikipedia
Even though she was weeping, perhaps out of remorse as well as embarrassment for intruding into this male gathering, the Pharisee interprets all of this show of affection as seduction and is thinking, "If this man were a prophet, he would have known who and what kind of woman this is who is touching him, that she is a sinner. When they could not pay, he canceled the debts for both of them. Now which of them will love him more?
I entered your house; you gave me no water for my feet, but she has bathed my feet with her tears and dried them with her hair. You gave me no kiss, but from the time I came in she has not stopped kissing my feet. You did not anoint my head with oil, but she has anointed my feet with ointment. Therefore, I tell you, her sins, which were many, have been forgiven; hence she has shown great love. But the one to whom little is forgiven, loves little. It seems that Simon had invited Jesus with some reservations, to find out what sort of teacher he was.
Jesus was on probation, and therefore not worthy of the customary foot-washing, greeting with a kiss, and anointing with ointment.
Jesus then turned to the woman and says, "Your sins are forgiven. Your faith has saved you; go in peace" Lk 7: First, Jesus redefined the place of women in society. He treated a woman with the same dignity as a man.Pharisees and Sadducees
Imagine women providing support to a group of men in a patriarchal society! Another way that Jesus challenged social boundaries in this story has to do with holiness or purity laws. How could a holy prophet allow such a filthy woman to touch him? Instead of putting her in her place, Jesus even commended her for her public demonstration of love and offered her forgiveness, salvation, and peace. In doing so, Jesus placed relationships between people above ceremonial laws governing what and who was "unclean.
In John 4 Jesus spoke with a Samaritan woman and asked for a drink. She had two things working against her: Because of some past history, Jews and Samaritans had no dealings with each other for centuries. Even she herself was surprised that he, a Jewish man, would speak to her, a woman of Samaria, in broad daylight at the public well. When the disciples returned from purchasing food, they too were surprised that Jesus was speaking to a Samaritan woman.
One of the most powerful parables of Jesus is the parable of the Good Samaritan Luke Most people today think that being a Good Samaritan is a wonderful quality, helping someone that has been hurt and stranded, and it is of course an admirable quality.
From a first-century Jewish perspective, it could not have been much more offensive than that. Again, Jesus challenged the racial divisions of his day. The social life of Jesus did not fit the norm. People were scandalized by his behavior. Consider what it must have looked like for Jesus to lead the kind of life he did. Here is a man who did not settle down in a place, hold down a job, and become a productive, responsible person in his town.
Instead, he was always on the move, surrounded by nobodies who had also quit their jobs and were roaming hither and yon. They were even being supported by women! What did his neighbors think?
He even said, "Foxes have holes and birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head" Luke 9: Well, if he would hold down a job, he would have a place! We often fail to understand the social dimension of the message of Jesus about the kingdom of God.
The message of Jesus was not simply to restore our broken relationship with God. Most of his message had to do with healing the broken relationships among people who have been separated from each other because of artificial lines of demarcation based on gender, race and religion. Family Relationships In Jewish life the family held a very important place.
It was of course a patriarchal society with the father holding the place of authority and power. In a social context like that, some of the most radical statements that Jesus made had to do with family relationships.
The Social Relationships of Jesus
Here are a few examples that have survived in the gospel tradition. On one occasion Jesus told someone to follow him. The man said, "Lord, first let me go and bury my father. Immediately after that dialogue we read about another man who said to Jesus, "I will follow you, Lord; but let me first say farewell to those at my home. Perhaps the most radical saying of all concerning the family is this one: To use the language of our own time, Jesus does not seem to believe in family values!
These are indeed some of the most provocative sayings of Jesus.