Hazaras - Minority Rights Group
The Hazaras say they are considered outsiders in their own country and have been persecuted throughout history. In the late s, Pashtun. The Hazaras (Persian: هزاره , Hazaragi: آزره ) are an ethnic group native to the region of .. There is evidence of both a patrimonial and maternal relation to Turkic . Hazara girls wearing red traditional hijabs sitting next to Tajik and Pashtun girls. “The Pashtun had the opportunities in the past, but now the Hazaras have these opportunities,” said Mustafa, whose school director asked that.
Economically Hazarajat was kept undeveloped with no roads, schools or clinics. The Hazaras have typically voiced their dissent to the policies of overt discrimination against them since the s through a unified opposition movement; the main Hazara party, Hizb-e Wahdat Party of Unitywas established in Inafter the Mujahidin took power, fighting between the various groups broke out.
Amnesty International subsequently reported the killing of many unarmed civilians and the rape of many Hazara women. In Februaryhundreds of Hazara residents in the Afshar district of West Kabul were massacred by government forces under the direction of Rabbani and Massoud, joined by Ittehad-i-Islami. The fighting saw the utter devastation of large areas of Kabul, particularly those inhabited by Hazaras.
BetweenAbdul Ali Mazari became the first political leader to speak out at the international level for, and on behalf of Hazaras, putting their case to the UN and the international community.
Mazari signed an agreement with the Taliban leadership in but was brutally murdered by them in In the years that followed, Hazaras faced particularly severe repression and persecution, including a series of mass killings in northern Afghanistan, where thousands of Hazaras lost their lives or were forced to flee their homes.
Consequently, Hazaras formed part of the Northern Alliance forces that opposed the Taliban and took power after the Taliban fell in A key moment in recent Hazara history is the destruction of the Bamyan Buddhas by the Taliban in The giant Buddha statues had long been central to the identity of the Hazara community.
Ethnic groups in Afghanistan
Although not built by the Hazaras themselves, who only came to have an ethnolinguistic identity based in the region some centuries later, they have their own myths associated with the statues, unrelated to Buddhism. In Hazara folklore, the statues are of a star-crossed couple Salsal and Shahmama, whose doomed love ends tragically in both their deaths.
The two remain forever separated, petrified in stone, looking across the Bamyan valley. However, the statues, long celebrated internationally, achieved less welcome attention in when the Taliban dynamited them, leaving behind little more than empty voids.
The destruction was, in fact, part of a larger campaign by the Taliban to suppress the rights and identity of Hazaras. International debate continues to rage regarding whether the statues should be reconstructed or not.
Ethnic violence in Afghanistan
However, the discussions often disregard the fact that the sculptures are an integral part of Hazara culture and do not always consider the need to involve local communities in any future decisions concerning them. Since the overthrow of the Taliban inthe situation of Hazaras in Afghanistan has improved considerably. Hazaras are one of the national ethnic minorities recognized in the new Afghan Constitution and have been given full right to Afghan citizenship.
But in the most recent parliamentary election Hazaras who make up around 9 per cent of the population gained 25 per cent of seats. However, Hazaras still face persistent discrimination in many areas of the country. Current issues A key issue for the Hazara community is the general climate of impunity, whereby those who committed atrocities — both past and present — to evade justice. Hazaras also remain concerned about the resurgence of the Taliban, who they feel pose a direct threat to their community.
There have also been increasing ethnic tensions and incidents of violent clashes between Hazaras and nomadic Kuchis over access to land in recent years.
Ethnic groups in Afghanistan - Wikipedia
Due to the severity of their persecution under the Taliban, Hazara leaders have insisted, along with leaders of other minority groups, to be included in all negotiations with the Taliban. With the increasing presence of foreign Islamist groups such as Islamic State in Iraq and Syria ISISactive in the country for a number of years, attacks against religious minorities have been on the increase. Suicide bombings targeting Hazara public events have taken place with increasing regularity, most of which have been claimed by groups stating allegiance with ISIS.
These include, in Julythe killing of 85 people at a peaceful protest comprised of mostly Hazaras.
Other attacks include a December bombing that left at least 41 dead and another 80 injured in a Hazara neighbourhood of western Kabul and an assault in March that resulted in the deaths of at least nine people.
However, the Taliban too is thought to be responsible for the increasing kidnappings of Hazaras, particularly on remote highways, with some of the victims killed while others have been held for ransom. Some minority women, such as the Hazara women, have traditionally enjoyed more freedom in their society than other ethnic groups. In the post-Taliban period, they have benefited considerably from political and educational reforms.
Poverty and insecurity drive many Hazaras to migrate to cities such as Kabul.
Hazaras - Wikipedia
A history of persecution The Hazaras say they are considered outsiders in their own country and have been persecuted throughout history. Hazaras were sold as slaves as late as the 19th century. Those living in rural areas were denied public services.
Until recent decades, few attended university or held government positions. Yet, despite their growing political clout, many Hazaras continue to feel discriminated against.
Desperate journeys - persecuted Hazara flee Afghanistan Hazara activists say the government does not protect the interests of the Hazaras. Parts of central Afghanistan, like Bamiyan, the unofficial Hazara capital, are among the country's poorest, often lacking basic facilities and electricity.
In March, Hazaras held a protest in Kabul against the government's decision to move a proposed power line project out of Bamiyan, arguing that the decision was yet another form of ethnic discrimination. Hazara Afghans are among the millions of refugees fleeing to Europe in search of a better future. While many Hazaras fled to Shia Iran, those who remained risked violence and even death. One of the most brutal events took place in the city of Mazar-i-Sharif inwhen thousands of Hazaras were systematically executed, according to a Human Rights Watch report.
Hazaras under threat Although Afghanistan is no longer under Taliban rule, growing insecurity has unsettled many.