Flea - Wikipedia
Apr 15, What is the relationship between mice and fleas? Are they harmful to one another ?. parasitism. Mouse/Flea: A flea feeds on a mouse's blood to the mouse's detriment . mutualism This relationship neither harms nor benefits the bison. parasitism. rabbits, squirrels, ferrets, rats, mice and birds. Fleas normally specialise in one host species or group of species, but can.
The compressed body enables them to move swiftly through hairs or feathers of the host, while the backwardly projecting spines or combs serve to anchor them within fur, hair, or feathers. The mouthparts are modified for sucking blood and include barbed stylets that aid both in penetration of the flea into the host skin and in attachment of species that spend long periods fixed to the host e. Generally, fleas that live on diurnal hosts have well-developed eyes, whereas species that parasitize subterranean hosts e.
Body plan of the cat flea. The most impressive adaptations are highly developed jumping legs. During their evolutionfleas, like the majority of parasitic insects, lost their wings. However, certain parts of the flight mechanism have been retained and incorporated in the jumping mechanism. For example, on flying insects, a rubbery protein known as resilin forms a hinge where the wings attach to the body.
Resilin absorbs compression and tension created during each wing stroke, and the stored energy is transferred through an elastic recoil-like effect to assist in the initiation of each successive stroke. Fleas, despite their wingless state, have retained the resilin hinge on the thorax at the site where the legs attach to the body. When a flea crouches, the resilin pads become compressed, and they are maintained in this state by a muscle -controlled catch mechanism.
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In the instant prior to jumping, the catch muscles relax, and the energy in the resilin pads is transferred through the legs. This creates a lever effect that pushes each tibia and tarsus onto the ground and thereby causes the flea to jump. Because fleas are able to leap horizontal or vertical distances times their body length and to develop an acceleration of gravities, they have been described as insects that fly with their legs.
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- Identify the relationship of each of the organism pairs below as
Certain species that live in nests high above the ground or in other unusual habitats crawl rather than jump. For infested animals a commercial dust, spray, dip, or aerosol containing an insecticide or growth regulator is used. However, in some regions, fleas have become resistant to some insecticides, and new materials are required.
For the control of larval and adult fleas away from the host, insecticides or growth regulators may be applied to the pens and haunts of the affected animals. Repellents may be effective in preventing attack by fleas. Evolution, paleontology, and classification The Siphonaptera form a small group of insects that are probably descended from an ancestor of the Mecoptera scorpionflieswith which they share certain characteristics.
Both groups have a spined gizzard proventriculussexual differences in the number of ganglia in the ventral nerve cord, six rectal glands, and a simple type of ovary. The males have a similar type of spermatozoon, unique in the phylum Arthropodain which a motile flagellumor tail, lacking the outer ring of nine tubules is deployed around the mitochondria cell organelles. A fossil flea discovered in Australia is claimed to be million years old.
Distinguishing taxonomic features Although taxonomic separation of these groups rests upon a combination of superficially trivial morphological characteristics, they do reflect the fundamental differences between the groups.
At the family or generic levels, classification is based principally upon shape of head and thorax, arrangement of combs, modifications of the male copulatory organ and female reproductive organs, general chaetotaxy arrangement of bristlesand other characteristics.
Annotated classification Fleas of today can be divided into multiple superfamilies, the precise number depending on the classification system used. A common system recognizes 10 superfamilies, including the Pulicoidea, Malacopsylloidea, Ceratophylloidea, Coptopsylloidea, Ancistropsylloidea, Pygiopsylloidea, Macropsylloidea, Stephanocircidoidea, Vermipsylloidea, and Hystrichopsylloidea. Other systems may recognize five or eight superfamilies.
The system below describes the five original superfamilies of an early classification proposed in by Franciscus Gerardus Albertus Maria Smit. Other experts later built upon this system, introducing new groups or combining existing groups based on similarities or differences in structures of the abdomen, head, and thorax.
Order Siphonaptera fleas Adults ectoparasitic on warm-blooded vertebrates. Small, wingless, laterally compressed insects; eyes present or lacking; antennae short and stout, reposing in grooves; mouthparts adapted to piercing and sucking, maxillary and labial palps present; thoracic segments free; legs with large coxae, tarsi 5-segmented; larvae elongated, legless, caterpillar-like; pupae with appendages free, enclosed in cocoons.
Some parasitic animals attack plants.
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Aphids are insects that eat the sap from the plants on which they live. Parasitic plants and fungi can attack animals. A fungus causes lumpy jaw, a disease that injures the jaws of cattle and hogs.
There are also parasitic plants and fungi that attack other plants and fungi. A parasitic fungus causes wheat rust and the downy mildew fungus attacks fruit and vegetables. Some scientists say that one-celled bacteria and viruses that live in animals and harm them, such as those that cause the common cold, are parasites as well.
However, they are still considered different from other parasites. The flea jump is so rapid and forceful that it exceeds the capabilities of muscle, and instead of relying on direct muscle power, fleas store muscle energy in a pad of the elastic protein named resilin before releasing it rapidly like a human using a bow and arrow.
In most species, neither female nor male fleas are fully mature when they first emerge but must feed on blood before they become capable of reproduction.
The total number of eggs produced in a female's lifetime fecundity varies from around one hundred to several thousand.
What is the relationship between a mouse and a flea
In some species, the flea lives in the nest or burrow and the eggs are deposited on the substrate,  but in others, the eggs are laid on the host itself and can easily fall off onto the ground. Because of this, areas where the host rests and sleeps become one of the primary habitats of eggs and developing larvae. The eggs take around two days to two weeks to hatch. In laboratory studies, some dietary diversity seems necessary for proper larval development.
Within the cocoon, the larva moults for a final time and undergoes metamorphosis into the adult form.