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Pediatr Int. Oct;52(5) doi: /jXx. Relationship between height and blood pressure in Japanese schoolchildren. And why don't these numbers change according to a person's height? Blood pressure readings include two numbers: systolic blood pressure and diastolic. Blood pressure (BP) percentiles in childhood are assessed according to age, gender, and height. Objective. To create a simple BP/height ratio.
International Journal of Pediatrics
Blood pressure Rigorously controlled blood pressure measurements were made in NHANES[ 13 ] and the details of procedures involved are presented in Supplemental Content 2. MBP was calculated as: The manufacturer recommended calibration and acquisition procedure was followed for the evaluation of each subject's scan.
Details of the imaging protocol are reported in the NCHS technical documentation. The analyses, conducted on participants not taking antihypertensive medications, were carried out using the survey package in R R Core Team; to produce nationally representative estimates while accommodating for the complex, multistage sampling design of NHANES.
Subpopulation analyses were conducted using the subset argument of the svyglm function in R. Standard error estimates were adjusted to account for both the complex sampling scheme and the multiple imputations using the stratum and masked variance units provided in the NHANES database and the mitools package in R, respectively. These characteristics were weighted to account for the oversampling of minority groups. Annual household income was chosen to represent socioeconomic status and whether or not the subject reported vigorous physical activity over the past 30 days was used as an overall indictor of activity level.
When adjusting for the other variables of interest, neither variable was statistically significant and further models did not include these terms. None of the variables for smoking status were good univariate predictors of blood pressure and they were not considered for subsequent models.
Four weighted linear regression models were fit, 1 for each outcome i. Initial explanatory variables included all of those previously listed plus all possible 2-way interactions with height. No attempts were made to collapse categories of the categorical variables.
Any time, 1 level of a categorical variable was significantly different than the reference category; all terms involving that variable were included. Statistically significant interactions with height remained in all models with the exception of MBP for women, making an interpretation of an overall effect of height in these models inappropriate.
- Relationship between height and blood pressure in Japanese schoolchildren.
A combined model using sex as a covariate is provided in Supplemental Content 3. The effect of height on SBP was thus not consistent across the age span. Prior to age 30 years, the height effect on SBP was positive and relatively small while beginning in the 4th decade the height effect was increasingly negative with greater age.
Associations between height and blood pressure in the United States population
The difference in predicted SBP between the 5th short and 95th tall percentiles for height is shown in Fig. SBP is predicted to be 2. Figure 2 Table 2: In all these equations, the coefficient of partial regression for weight was positive and had the highest value, varying from 0. But only percent variability in DBP was explained by these three factors. Figure 3 Table 3: Discussion With objective of finding out presence and strength of association between BP and weight, height and age among children, present study was carried out.
It was found that correlation coefficients were positive and highly significant for weight and height. For age, correlation coefficient was significant only in boy SBP.
Relationship between height and blood pressure in Japanese schoolchildren.
In addition, it was seen that the values of the correlation coefficients were in descending order for weight, height and age in both sexes. A study from Calcutta also reported the same observations 6.
It also gave an idea that everything else remaining constant, an increase in weight would be associated with an increased BP. Other studies 57 had also observed an association of BP in school children with obesity. For prediction or estimation of the response variable for given values of other explanatory variables, derivation of linear multiple regression equations are necessary.
These equations help to assess the relative importance of variables related to response variable. For height, the coefficients of regression were positive in all the equations except for boy DBP. It means that at the same weight and age, the taller children will tend to have higher BP and it would be reverse in case of DBP in boys.
The coefficients of regression for age were negative in all the equations except for boy SBP. It explained that when children at the same weight and height are considered, the older the child the lower would be the BP and the reverse will be for boy SBP. The phenomenon of tracking demonstrates that the individuals whose BP are initially high, continue in the same track as adults and indicates that the process of development of hypertension sets in at an early age and manifests during childhood.
The level of BP in children illustrates a stronger association with body weight than height or age. Also out of the three anthropometric determinants being considered namely weight, height and age, only weight can be brought down for an individual. Therefore it can be concluded that hypertension should be controlled in community by keeping an ideal body weight right from childhood and this strategy would be more cost effective in long run.
Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in children. Report of the second task force on blood pressure control in children, Relationship of blood pressure with age, sex, height and weight among rural school children Yrs. A study of distribution of blood pressure amongst primary school children of Surat city and the impact of various anthropometric and nutritional determinants upon the blood pressure.
Indian Journal of Hypertension ; 2: Bose AS, Marimuthu P.
Indian Journal of Community Health ; 5 2: Anand NK, Tandon L. Prevalence of Hypertension in school going children. Indian Pediatr ; Author Information Amul B.