Russia: Yeltsin Accuses Gorbachev Of Complicity In Coup
President Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev on 25 December , in a televised .. INDIA'S NUCLEAR TEST () AND INDO-RUSSIAN RELATIONS. 31, , when Yeltsin abruptly resigned from office and made way for Putin. . The greatest test of their personal relationship came during the Kosovo . allies had assured Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev during the Yeltsin said that Gorbachev was anything but an innocent victim of the plotters. no personal relations with Yeltsin -- told the Italian daily "La Republica": "Yeltsin is Putin Lauds Successful Test Of Hypersonic Missile System.
The agricultural sector, for example, had provided food at low cost thanks to decades of heavy government subsidies.
BBC Bitesize - National 5 History - Changing relations between the superpowers - Revision 6
Now, it could charge higher prices in the marketplace — prices many Soviets could not afford. Government spending and Soviet debt skyrocketed, and pushes by workers for higher wages led to dangerous inflation. If Gorbachev faced opposition from the entrenched hardliners that he was moving too far, too fast, he was criticized for doing just the opposite by others.
Some liberals called for full-fledged abolishment of central planning committees entirely, which Gorbachev resisted.
The Gorbachev Files: Secret Papers Reveal Truth Behind Soviet Collapse
At a Party meeting inhe pushed through measures calling for the first truly democratic elections since the Russian Revolution of Hardliners who supported this initially believed that the date for these elections would be far enough in the future that they could control the process.
Instead, Gorbachev announced that they would be held just months later.
While some Communist Party members reserved many of the seats for themselves, other hardliners went down to defeat at the ballot box to liberal reformers. Former dissidents and prisoners, including Nobel laureate physicist and activist Andrei Sakharovwere elected, as candidates waged Western-style campaigns. When the new Congress met for its first session in Maynewspapers, television and radio stations — newly empowered by the lifting of press restrictions under glasnost — devoted hours of time to the meetings, which featured open conflict between conservatives and liberals.
Opponents of Perestroika Counterattack But as with economic reforms, many of these newly-elected reformers used their platforms to criticize what they still considered limited change. There was the sense of change sweeping the Soviet Union, which he should have anticipated.
And then there was his nemesis, Boris Yeltsin, who should have been sidelined with some kind of diplomatic posting — London perhaps. I should have sent him as ambassador to Great Britain or maybe a former British colony," Gorbachev told the Guardian in a wide-ranging interview marking the 20th anniversary of the coup that ultimately ended his six-year stint as Soviet leader.
If the idea of Yeltsin as a diplomat hosting soirees at Kensington Palace Gardens seems far-fetched, Gorbachev's assessment of what went wrong 20 years ago — and what has gone wrong since — is more realistic.
Mikhail Gorbachev: I was too soft on Yeltsin
The last Soviet president is frank about what he got wrong and even franker about the course Russia should be taking now. Vladimir Putinthe prime minister, is blocking Russia's progress towards becoming a modernised democracy, says Gorbachev, adding, ahead of elections next year, that the current president, Dmitry Medvedev, would be a better leader for the country.
He thinks we should stick with the status quo. But we say 'No, if you want to keep the status quo, then why are you talking about modernisation?
Gorbachev, who was equally in the dark as to what would happen to his family and the country in the coming weeks, and who respected his wife's opinions, followed her lead and began burning other documents.
He tossed 25 notebooks into the flames. They included notes he had made while in office, details of everyday political life, descriptions of politicians and various plans. The only notebook he kept was his private diary. Almost 20 years would pass before he spoke of the incident again, in a February interview with Novaya Gazeta, a newspaper he publishes. Archive Contains Thousands of Documents The official papers from his almost six years in office were preserved. Gorbachev took them with him when he announced his resignation as the Soviet president at the end of the year, and donated them to the foundation that bears his name.
Since then, about 10, documents have been in storage at the foundation's headquarters on Leningrad Prospect 39 in Moscow.
Mikhail Gorbachev: I was too soft on Yeltsin | World news | The Guardian
They include the personal archives of his foreign policy advisers, Vadim Zagladin and Anatoly Chernyaev. The papers illustrate the end period of the communist experiment. They include the minutes of negotiations with foreign leaders, the handwritten recommendations of advisers to Gorbachev, speaker's notes for telephone conversations and recordings of those conversations, confidential notes by ambassadors and shorthand records of debates in the politburo.
None of the issues with which the self-proclaimed reformer of the Soviet Union was confronted in those years has been left out. There are memorandums in which the Soviet leader is advised on how to end the war in Afghanistan or how to deal with Jews seeking to emigrate, or explaining to him why he should refuse to meet with Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat "nothing real to be expected from him" or why he should avoid putting Mathias Rust, a young German aviator who had illegally landed a light aircraft near Red Square, on trial and receive him in the Kremlin instead "there are questions as to his psychological state".
There are reports from informers within the East German Communist Party leadership, describing how bad conditions were in East Germany and detailing who could still be depended upon in the East Berlin politburo. And there are equally meticulous reports on what the French magazine Paris Match wrote about Raisa Gorbachova or what the Russian singer Alla Pugacheva told a German magazine about Gorbachev's perestroika policy. Inefficient Bureaucracy Reading the documents feels like stepping back in time.
All at once, they reveal the many problems of the calcified system, where farmers and miners alike were rebelling and intellectuals were demanding democratic elections. The people of the Baltic states, the Georgians and the Moldovans were revolting against the Russians, while the end of the Brezhnev Doctrine -- the Soviet Union foreign policy that countries could not leave the Warsaw Pact -- was looming in Eastern Europe.
Gorbachev, who had once been a provincial official in Stavropol, stood at the helm of this country, watching it suffocate as a result of its sheer size and the refusal of its bureaucracy to change course.Gorbachev: Treachery killed USSR - BBC News
The documents also show that even under Gorbachev, the bureaucracy was as inefficient as ever. Gorbachev's aide Anatoly Chernyaev, for example, complains about incompetent leaders in the global communist movement, like French Communist Party leader Georges Marchais "a dead horse" and Gus Hall, the chairman of the Communist Party USA "a philistine with plebeian conceits".