Native American - Native American history | francinebavay.info
Native American history is made additionally complex by the diverse geographic and not account for pre-Columbian contact between Native Americans and Europeans. The cross-cutting relationships between ethnicity and political organization are . Having vanquished the indigenous nations of Mexico and Peru, the. Interracial relations between Native Americans, Europeans, and and contact were recorded in Post-Columbian Mexico. Warfare between Europeans and Indians was common in the A major Pueblo revolt also threatened Spanish-held New Mexico in
The American population in was tiny.
However, one of the last acts of the tottering Spanish regime was to begin a colonization program to attract more settlers from the United States. This decision would have fateful consequences for the future of Texas and its Indians. By the end ofcolonists began arriving in Texas under the leadership of Stephen F. Over the next several years, Austin and other colonizers, known as empresarios, brought hundreds of American families to settle in Texas.
By the time of the Texas Revolution, the white American population had reached 20, along with African Americans, most of them slaves. The Tejano population had also increased to about During this time, the Plains Indians such as the Comanches continued their traditional way of life, often raiding white or Tejano settlements, then trading the stolen goods to unscrupulous Americans for weapons.
The agricultural tribes such as the Caddos and Cherokees were politically aware and recognized the American hunger for the land they occupied. They spent great energy trying to gain legal title from the Mexican government for their lands, an effort in which they were unsuccessful.
Both Plains and agricultural Indians were mentioned in an petition for reform by American Texans to the Mexican government; the petition included demands for better protection of the frontier and for the establishment of clear land titles for the Indians.
Census of the Mission of San Jose, Click on image for larger image and transcript.
Native Americans in the United States
Many different Indian groups were represented at the mission, many from the Coahuiltecan bands. These Indians farmed the area, worked as cattle and sheep ranchers, and mastered the arts of masonry, fresco painting, wood work, and metal craftsmanship. They also had time for cultural pursuits; in the s, it was noted that "many play the harp, the violin, and the guitar well, sing well, and dance the same dances as the Spaniards.
Census of the Mission of San Jose. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in near Clovis, New Mexico. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis pointa flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft.
Native Americans in the United States - Wikipedia
Dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11, and 10, radiocarbon years B. Linguists, anthropologists, and archaeologists believe their ancestors comprised a separate migration into North America, later than the first Paleo-Indians.
They constructed large multi-family dwellings in their villages, which were used seasonally. People did not live there year-round, but for the summer to hunt and fish, and to gather food supplies for the winter.
- American-Indian Wars
- The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction
- U.S.-Mexican Relations from Independence to the Present
Archaic period in the Americas Since the s, archeologists have explored and dated eleven Middle Archaic sites in present-day Louisiana and Florida at which early cultures built complexes with multiple earthwork mounds ; they were societies of hunter-gatherers rather than the settled agriculturalists believed necessary according to the theory of Neolithic Revolution to sustain such large villages over long periods.
The Formative, Classic and post-Classic stages are sometimes incorporated together as the Post-archaic period, which runs from BCE onward.
Indigenous peoples of Mexico
The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a common network of trade routes,   This period is considered a developmental stage without any massive changes in a short period, but instead having a continuous development in stone and bone tools, leather working, textile manufacture, tool production, cultivation, and shelter construction.
Their gift-giving feast, potlatchis a highly complex event where people gather in order to commemorate special events. These events include the raising of a Totem pole or the appointment or election of a new chief. The most famous artistic feature of the culture is the Totem pole, with carvings of animals and other characters to commemorate cultural beliefs, legends, and notable events.
A map showing approximate areas of various Mississippian and related cultures.
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately CE to CE, varying regionally. The civilization flourished from the southern shores of the Great Lakes at Western New York and Western Pennsylvania in what is now the Eastern Midwestextending south-southwest into the lower Mississippi Valley and wrapping easterly around the southern foot of the Appalachians barrier range into what is now the Southeastern United States.
The Iroquois League of Nations or "People of the Long House" was a politically advanced, democratic society, which is thought by some historians to have influenced the United States Constitution  with the Senate passing a resolution to this effect in It hangs in the United States Capitol rotunda.
AfterEuropean exploration and colonization of the Americas revolutionized how the Old and New Worlds perceived themselves.