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Bronchiole - Wikipedia

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Mar 4, Trachea The trachea, also called the windpipe, is part of the passageway that supplies air to the lungs. Any prolonged blockage, even for a few. Jul 14, You inhale air into your nose or mouth, and it travels down the back of your throat and into your windpipe, or trachea. Your trachea then divides. The airways (trachea, bronchi, bronchioles) are surrounded by a type of involuntary . Goals of therapy must be realistically attainable and explicitly defined for you. . Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids (no relationship to "steroids" used by.

Without oxygen, the body's cells would die.

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Carbon dioxide is the waste gas produced when carbon is combined with oxygen as part of the energy-making processes of the body. The lungs and respiratory system allow oxygen in the air to be taken into the body, while also enabling the body to get rid of carbon dioxide in the air breathed out. Respiration is the set of events that results in the exchange of oxygen from the environment and carbon dioxide from the body's cells.

The process of taking air into the lungs is inspiration, or inhalation, and the process of breathing it out is expiration, or exhalation. Air is inhaled through the mouth or through the nose. Cilia lining the nose and other parts of the upper respiratory tract move back and forth, pushing foreign matter that comes in with air like dust either toward the nostrils to be expelled or toward the pharynx.

The pharynx passes the foreign matter along to the stomach to eventually be eliminated by the body.


As air is inhaled, the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth warm and humidify the air before it enters the lungs. When you breathe in, the diaphragm moves downward toward the abdomen, and the rib muscles pull the ribs upward and outward.

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In this way, the volume of the chest cavity is increased. Air pressure in the chest cavity and lungs is reduced, and because gas flows from high pressure to low, air from the environment flows through the nose or mouth into the lungs. In exhalation, the diaphragm moves upward and the chest wall muscles relax, causing the chest cavity to contract. Air pressure in the lungs rises, so air flows from the lungs and up and out of respiratory system through the nose or mouth.

Every few seconds, with each inhalation, air fills a large portion of the millions of alveoli.

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In a process called diffusion, oxygen moves from the alveoli to the blood through the capillaries tiny blood vessels lining the alveolar walls. Once in the bloodstream, oxygen gets picked up by the hemoglobin in red blood cells. This oxygen-rich blood then flows back to the heart, which pumps it through the arteries to oxygen-hungry tissues throughout the body.

In the tiny capillaries of the body tissues, oxygen is freed from the hemoglobin and moves into the cells. Carbon dioxide, which is made by the cells as they do their work, moves out of these cells into the capillaries, where most of it becomes dissolved in the plasma of the blood. Blood rich in carbon dioxide then returns to the heart via the veins.

From the heart, this blood is pumped to the lungs, where carbon dioxide passes into the alveoli to be exhaled.

Respiratory System | Interactive Anatomy Guide

The most common problems of the respiratory system are: More than 20 million people in the United States have asthma, and it's the 1 reason that kids frequently miss school. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes airways to tighten and narrow.

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Often triggered by irritants such as cigarette smoke or exposure to cold air, viral or bacterial infections of the respiratory tract, and exposure to animal dander or pollens in kids who are allergic to them. Asthma flares involve contraction of the muscles and swelling of the lining of the tiny airways. The resulting narrowing of the airways prevents air from flowing properly, causing wheezing and difficulty breathing, sometimes to the point of being life-threatening.

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Controlling asthma starts with an asthma action planwhich usually involves avoiding asthma triggers and, sometimes, taking medicines. Not to be confused with bronchitis, bronchiolitis is an inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest branches of the bronchial tree. Bronchiolitis affects mostly infants and young children, and can cause wheezing and serious difficulty breathing.

It's usually caused by specific viruses in the wintertime, including respiratory syncytial virus RSV.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. COPD is a term that describes two lung diseases — emphysema and chronic bronchitis: Long-term smoking often causes emphysema, and although it seldom affects kids and teens, it can have its roots in the teen and childhood years. Talking to your kids about smoking is a key part of preventing smoking-related diseases.

In emphysema, the lungs produce an excessive amount of mucus and the alveoli become damaged. It becomes difficult to breathe and get enough oxygen into the blood. In chronic bronchitis, a common disease of adults and teens, the membranes lining the larger bronchial tubes become inflamed and an excessive amount of mucus is produced.

The person develops a bad cough to get rid of the mucus. Cigarette smoking is a major cause of chronic bronchitis in teens. Other Conditions Common cold. Caused by more than different viruses that cause inflammation in the upper respiratory tract, the common cold is the most common respiratory infection.

Symptoms may include a mild fever, cough, headache, runny nose, sneezing, and sore throat. A cough is a symptom of an illness, not an illness itself. There are many different types of cough and many different causes, ranging from not-so-serious to life-threatening.

  • Bronchial Tree
  • Respiratory System

Some of the more common causes affecting kids are the common cold, asthma, sinusitis, seasonal allergies, croup, and pneumonia.

Among the most serious causes of cough are tuberculosis TB and whooping cough pertussis. Affecting more than 30, kids and young adults in the United States, cystic fibrosis is the most common inherited disease affecting the lungs.

Affecting primarily the respiratory and digestive systems, CF causes mucus in the body to be abnormally thick and sticky. The mucus can clog the airways in the lungs and make a person more vulnerable to bacterial infections. The consumption of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide are thus indispensable to life. The respiratory system enables oxygen to enter the body and carbon dioxide to leave the body.

Lungs and Respiratory System

The respiratory system starts at the nose and mouth and continues through the airways and the lungs. Air enters the respiratory system through the nose and mouth and passes down the throat pharynx and through the voice box, or larynx. The entrance to the larynx is covered by a small flap of tissue epiglottis that automatically closes during swallowing, thus preventing food or drink from entering the airways.

The windpipe trachea is the largest airway. The trachea branches into two smaller airways: Each lung is divided into sections lobes: The left lung is a little smaller than the right lung because it shares space in the left side of the chest with the heart.

Inside the Lungs and Airways The bronchi themselves branch many times into smaller airways, ending in the narrowest airways bronchioleswhich are as small as one half of a millimeter across.

The airways resemble an upside-down tree, which is why this part of the respiratory system is often called the bronchial tree. Large airways are held open by semiflexible, fibrous connective tissue called cartilage.

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Smaller airways are supported by the lung tissue that surrounds and is attached to them.