World Cup France 2 Uruguay 0; Belgium 2 Brazil 1; France v Belgium semifinal
Brazil earned a friendly win over Uruguay without ever getting out of second gear . First, Firmino is struggling to establish a relationship with Neymar. choose the moment to press, close to the opponent's goal if possible. Created during a period when longtime rivals Argentina and Brazil were seeking to improve relations, the bloc saw some early successes, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay signed the Treaty of Asuncion [PDF], an accord One of Mercosur's early aims was to cement the region's return to democracy, since. This study focuses on precipitation in Uruguay and the Brazilian state of Rio The present paper has two principal goals: 1) to describe the annual cycle of.
Roman Catholicism is the largest religion in Uruguay with around 47 per cent of the population identifying as Catholic although some of these identify as non-practising Catholics. Protestantism, Judaism and other faiths are also present. Spanish is the official language of Uruguay. Like Australia, Uruguay is a significant agricultural producer and exporter. Australia and Uruguay are members of the Cairns Group and cooperate in the World Trade Organization to advance global reform of agricultural markets.
Australia's first Ambassador to Uruguay, E. Mackinnon presented credentials on 17 July Australia has non-resident diplomatic accreditation to Uruguay through the Australian Embassy in Buenos Aires and maintains an Honorary Consulate in Montevideo, which provides consular services to Australians in Uruguay.
Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent. Uruguay rates highly for most development indicators and is known for its secularism, liberal social laws, and well-developed social security, health, and educational systems.
It is one of the few countries in Latin America where the entire population has access to clean water. Uruguay's provision of free primary through university education has contributed to the country's high levels of literacy and educational attainment.
Political overview The Spanish first arrived in Uruguay inbut resistance from indigenous inhabitants helped postpone full Spanish settlement until the early 18th century.
Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbour to become an important commercial centre. Following secession from Spain inUruguay was annexed by Portugal to its Brazilian territories. Claimed by Argentina but annexed by Brazil inUruguay declared its independence from Brazil inand in the country became fully independent under the Treaty of Montevideo.
During the rest of the 19th century there was a number of minor conflicts with neighbouring states, coupled with considerable inflows of mainly European immigrants. Throughout much of the 20th century, Uruguay's two main political parties, the centrist Colorado and National Blanco parties, alternated in power. However, a military regime assumed control following a coup inand remained in power until The legacies of twelve years of military rule included an economy in severe decline and lingering human rights issues.
Democracy was re-installed in and successive governments have worked to consolidate Uruguay's democratic institutions and stabilise the economy. Inthe left-of-centre Frente Amplio Coalition won national elections that effectively ended years of political control previously held by the Colorado and Blanco parties. System of government Uruguay is divided into 19 "departments" with limited local self-government. The political system is based on a strong central executive branch, subject to legislative and judicial checks.
No member of any branch of government can simultaneously perform official duties in another branch. The President and Vice-President are chosen by direct popular vote for one five-year term consecutive re-election is not permittedand the ministers are appointed by the President.
The legislative branch consists of a bicameral Parliament, comprising the member Senate upper house and the member Chamber of Deputies lower house. The next presidential and parliamentary elections will be held in October Recent political developments The ruling "Frente Amplio" coalition was returned by a comfortable margin in late after successfully campaigning on Uruguay's strong growth in the previous decade of Frente Amplio governments.
The Frente Amplio FA is a centre-left coalition of 21 political groups. Since Marchhowever, government initiatives have been hampered by an increasingly divided Frente Amplio coalition, that has thwarted attempts to reduce public debt and rein in the fiscal deficit. Uruguay has performed well during its tenure on the UN Security Council This was the first time that the conference took place in Latin America.
Foreign and trade policy Uruguay's most important political and economic partners are its neighbours, in particular Brazil and Argentina. Mexico is an observer and Bolivia is in the process of becoming a full member.
Membership of Mercosur provides Uruguay with preferential trade access to the markets of Mercosur members and its associates. However, Uruguay has expressed an increasing dissatisfaction with the trading benefits that Mercosur has provided and increased protectionism from some other members, and has mooted external FTAs an idea opposed by its Mercosur partners as inconsistent with Mercosur rules.
Inboth Uruguay and Australia became observers of the Pacific Alliance, a group of outward-looking pro-trade liberalising Latin American economies comprising Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. InUruguay announced its intention to pursue full membership of the bloc, subject to its Mercosur commitments. Uruguay maintains positive relations with the United States, based on economic ties and regional cooperation aimed at combatting drug trafficking and terrorism.
Uruguay and the United States have, in the past, put in place agreements to establish trade and investment relations, including the Joint Commission on Trade and Investment and a bilateral investment framework agreement, which entered into force in Opportunities had been lost with the shelving of education reforms and withdrawal from Trade in Services Agreement negotiations, however a renewed Free Trade Agreement with Chile October is likely to attract Uruguay to Chile's services sector, while Uruguay takes advantage of Chile's openness to trade across the Pacific.
Bilateral relations Australia is expanding its bilateral relationship with Uruguay through trade and people-to-people links, including student exchanges and academic linkages, particularly in the agriculture, energy, mining, and education sectors.
The redemocratization process in Brazil, which triggered direct elections inhelped the profession to leave the governmental bias, tied to ceremonial and protocol procedures during the period of military governments, and started inserting itself into the organizational domain Moura, The s denoted a particularly important landmark due to the development of the internet and the emergence of digital technologies. This period also stands out because of the discussions for the implementation of DCNs, which entered into force at the beginning of the following decade.
Amid the advances, in the s, many Public Relations courses were created in Brazil 3. A change that can affect teaching, but that still does not reflect on higher education, are the DCNs for the Public Relations field, adopted inwhich are presented next. The National Curriculum Guidelines for Public Relations in Brazil Although no specific reference was made to the emergence of digital culture, the document that establishes the Public Relations DCNs mentions that the professional should be in command of the communicational process of different media.
Another document guidance is stated in general principles, referring to the issue of updating courses, which are hold responsible for the offer of conditions, to students, so they develop knowledge and practices in digital media, with updated technological resources and constant training of the teaching staff Brasil, In comparison with the old guidelines, approved in Brasil,which were not specific to the Public Relations field, there are three new aspects: Although they are qualitatively shy, in terms of scope, they alter the current structure of the courses in the country.
The implementation of the guidelines, compared with the previous ones, brought a timid breakthrough regarding the digital scenario. Among other factors, the low participation of academic and professional communities in the discussion process, both in the virtual consultation and in the public hearings, possibly contributed to this result.
The structure that covers the curricular content of the Public Relations course presents an organization into four areas: In Communication, the document provides for studies on the digital scenario in two items: In Public Relations, there are two items aimed at the digital scenario: That is, of the total of four areas, only half of these include issues related to the digital scenario.
Overall, there are four items, focusing on the issue of ICT and media studies in the broader scope of Social Communication and digital media production and network communication specifically in Public Relations. This shows gaps of various functions and activities that may be of the Public Relations field in the digital scenario, such as measurement, campaigns, consulting, for instance.
Rhoden conducted a survey through the Digital Public Relations Study Group, coordinated by ABRACOM Brazilian Association of Communication Agenciesinapplied to communication professionals from different communication agencies from Brazil that presented the five most offered services by agencies in the country: Data indicate that measurement has been the most frequent service in agencies nowadays.
And the services that clients sought the most were: What we can observe, based on the research, is that the world of work focuses on a management profile of these digital communication processes, with emphasis on the use, monitoring and updates of social networks. The need to measure the return that communication provides becomes, increasingly, an essential factor in the communicational process, even to justify the investment.
In the digital environment, there are tools and evaluation programs available and, through them, these possibilities are extended, demonstrating, effectively, the results they provide to businesses. Amid the process of transformations, it is possible to claim that the updated guidelines serve to indicate what is expected from a Public Relations professional in the digital scenario and regarding their communication skills and competencies, so that students do not have a disproportionate education in relation to other communication areas.
In Argentina, the situation is different, as we shall see in the following session. Public Relations in Argentina According to Ferrarip. Despite the presence of big companies, where professionals performed the Public Relations function, until the early s the position was usually occupied by journalists in Argentina. This happened because, until then, there was no formal academic education in the field.
Tite yet to find the right blend in Brazil's unsatisfactory win over Uruguay
Multinational companies that already existed in the country began to grow in volume, especially railcars and oil companies. At that time, the country began making contact with what was going on abroad, including in the business communication framework.
Other important dates of the period are also mentioned by Ferrarip. Inthe Argentine Association of Public Relations was created by Argentinean professionals and foreigners who worked in public relations at the time. Inthe Circle opened its first school of public relations, which offered vocational, non-university education.
The first students would be entering the job market only in the late s. Ina vocational course at the School of Public Relations was opened. According to Kempinthe Universidad Argentina de la Empresa opened the first Public Relations course that issued the University title approved by the Ministry of Education.
Then, with the arrival of the new military government and the closing of the Congress, the country took other directions. According to Ferrarip. The companies needed to communicate through almost personalized managements with public authorities that had great power.
In addition, the communication in companies suffered a tremendous budget cutback. Along with this situation, multinational companies established in the country had its officers kidnapped by guerrilla groups and, also, due to the Falklands War.
Between the decades of andthe nationalist sentiment arose in Argentina against the North-American force. Governments systematically fostered nationalism, which also served to justify the white elephant into which the State had been converted.
The multinational companies maintained their numbers for decades.
Until the mids, the local papers did not dedicate a space for business news. Besides not having economic supplements, the section aimed to the theme was occupied by issues regarding the government economic policy and macroeconomics. In view of this, the high demand from the students who enrolled in Public Relations in the s took the universities by surprise. In the late s, the process was identical to the Brazilian one, in the sense that there was more communication and an increased need for this sector, as Ferrari explainsp.
In the s, the field grew due to the creation of several communication agencies, among them, Edelman Argentina, one of the leaders in corporate communications in the world. In Argentina, 47 Public Relations courses 5 are in operation today, being 27 of undergraduate level and 20 of pregrado which equals, in Brazil, to a vocational course. Despite this, the profession has not been regulated yet. In relation to the minimum contents for higher education, careers are divided into two types, listed in Law No.
Some areas are regulated by the government, while others are not. The latter ones, to which Public Relations belong, do not have minimum contents. Therefore, the course descriptions of this area depend on each University.
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As to the nomenclature, undergraduate courses are called: In vocational courses pregradohowever, public relations analyst is predominant. In the following section we provide details about the Uruguayan higher education dedicated to the Public Relations field. Public Relations in Uruguay Public Relation activities in Uruguay formally emerged in the government sector, in the s, with the creation of a specialized department in the Armed Forces.
In Uruguay, the entities of the category also had a decisive role in the development of Public Relations. The Association, established on September 19,highlights in its bylaws three key goals: Ferrarip. Subsequently, the Uruguayan Institute for Public Relations was created where, for several years, specialized courses that shaped a generation of professionals in the field were offered. Inthe association sponsored courses in vocational level with the Center for Studies and Qualification from Uruguay and, init was responsible for organizing the first World Meeting of Public Relations Teachers Ferrari, In the s, the courses were reorganized by AURP, being divided into three levels: AURP, in such a way, formally contributed to the training of the area, with a decisive response by the students of Public Relations, which yearned for knowledge that could be applied in their professional activities.
The courses promoted by the entity spread over Uruguay, covering 20 cities. According to Public Relations professionals, the concept of public relations activity is more related to protocol and social events than to the administration or to the planning of business and institutional communication.
Presently, it is possible to have a teaching degree in Social Communication, not Public Relations specifically, at undergraduate level in four educational institutions in the country: In Uruguay, University courses have a duration of four years. There are also universities that offer one- and two-year options, such as the Universidade de la Empresa, with the Public Relations Analyst one-year long course, and the Universidad ORT, with the two-year long courses of Analyst of Corporate Communications and Public Relations, and the two-year long Vocational Course of Public Relations and Event Management.
The Universidad del Trabajo del Uruguay offers vocational training and has a two-year course, granting the title of Social Communication Technician. Vocational institutes, on the other hand, generally offer one-year courses. Concerning curriculum or content guidelines, there is no guidelines on the part of the Uruguayan Ministry of Education, that is, each institution has autonomy regarding the courses offered. Considering the data of members from our organization, those involved in professional updating courses and seminars, and the number of university graduates, I venture to estimate that there are more than a thousand professionals working in our country.
The request for a title to exercise the profession in the country is quite recent, since the official graduate and vocational courses are more than 15 years old. Today, it is common the requirement of training in one of these courses to search for vacancies in the world of work.