Study on the Length and Weight Relationship of Oreachromis Niluticus (Tilapia) in Fresh Water Fishponds of Lupon School of Fisheries, Lupon, Davao Oriental. Fish can be in two symbiotic relationships by having internal parasites This is seen when both milk fish and tilapia species feed on the same. Fish kills of milkfish Chanos chanos and tilapia Oreochromis spp. now occur frequently in brackish, marine, and freshwater farms (ponds, pens.
All the benefits go to the predator. Commensalism occurs when species 1 benefits from the relationship with species 2 but species 2 does not benefit at all, although no harm is done by the interaction to species 2. An example would be a cattle egret riding on the back of or alongside a cow. As the cow walks and feeds, it scares up prey items from the ground, such as insects and small animals, which the cattle egret will catch and consume. Cattle egret has been shown to catch more prey when hunting near a cow or other large animals than when hunting alone.
Since the egret is so light weight, it does not cost the cow any energy to have a rider on its back. The cow does not benefit from having a bird on its back or at its side either, although the relationship can sometimes be beneficial if the egret can spot a predator like a lion and warns the cow of its presence by suddenly flying away or making alarm calls. Competition happens when two species or two individuals of the same species fight for the same food or same scarce resource such as nesting site or egg deposition site.
Interspecific competition is the most intense, as different species living in the same area often evolve to exploit different resources to lessen competition. Parasitism happens when one species the parasite feeds on another species the host directly without killing the host or benefitting the host in any way. Fleas and ticks are parasites, for example, but they generally do not kill their host. Liver and muscle tissue were processed for the estimation of glycogen and muscle protein.
The intestine was processed for the determination of protease enzyme activity, amylase, cellulase and lipase activity. The concentrations of each metabolite obtained at the 2-h intervals were summed up and the quantity of nitrogen and phosphate excreted by the fish in aquaria water were calculated as follows: Feed ingredients, experimental diets, faecal samples, fish carcass initial and final were analysed following AOAC [ 23 ].
Crude protein contents were estimated by multiplying nitrogen by a factor of 6. Crude fat contents were determined by petroleum ether extraction Soxhlet's apparatus. Chromic oxide levels in the diets as well as in the faecal samples were estimated spectrophotometrically.
Apparent protein digestibility APD of the diets was calculated as follows: Energy contents of the diets and fish were calculated using the average caloric conversion factors of 0. Statistical analysis Data were subjected to multivariate analysis. Length-weight relationship was calculated according to the equation: Plankton species diversity d was determined using the diversity index formula of Shannon and Weaver [ 21 ].
What is the symbiotic relationship between milkfish and tilapia
ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test was applied to determine significant differences between different salinity treatments maintained under laboratory conditions. LWR indicate that 'n' values were found to obey cube law; however, highest values were observed in fish grown at 25 ppt salinity fed at low ration Table 2. Productivity indicating parameters viz.
Plankton population remained significantly higher Table 4 where the fish were fed on low ration level. Phytoplankton were represented by Chlorophyceae 5 TaxaBacillariophyceae 5 taxa and Cyanophyceae 1 taxa. Zooplankton were represented by Copepoda 4 taxa and Rotifera 3 taxa. In contrast, differences in growth rate were observed among various salinity treatments and the two ration levels.
Growth performance of milkfish increased with each increase in the salinity from ppt and thereafter a depression in growth with reduced digestibility and feed conversion efficiency were observed in fish maintained at 30 ppt.
Low values in total ammonia excretion and reactive phosphate production mg kg-1 BW day-1 were recorded in fish maintained at 25 ppt. The concentration of reactive phosphate o-PO4- in the water was high when the samples were analysed 2h post-feeding, declining to the lowest level thereafter and reaching a peak approximately 20 h post-feeding.
Thereafter, the levels again declined and remained low. Highest values however, were observed at 25 ppt salinity. Growth performance of milkfish in inland saline groundwater at 25 ppt salinity in a culture period of days is comparably rather higher than most of the studies reported in the literature [ 725 ].
Studies of Jana et al. Condition factor 'k' indicative of the well-being of the fish varied between 0. Bishara [ 27 ] reported that the values of condition factor decreased with age. In the present studies, highest values of 'n' 3.
Feeding levels and protein contents appear to affect the amount of energy assimilated by fish [ 28 ]. These results are in agreement with the observations of Sumagaysay and Borlongan [ 28 ] and Jana et al.
As the intestine plays a major role in osmoregulation, salinity-mediated decrease in digestibility may therefore be due in part to a higher rate of food movement in the fish maintained at high salinities and thus reducing the time required for more and complete digestion and absorption of nutrients.
These results are similar to those reported by Ferraris et al. De Silva and Perera [ 13 ] found that food intake in mullets increased in high salinities, a finding which might be related to a higher rate of food movement and lower digestibility under these conditions.
As marine fish drink water for osmoregulatory reasons, it is possible that digestive efficiency is compromised in sea water because of the food motility changes necessitated by osmoregulatory processes. A fish exposed to higher salinities has to expend more energy to meet the metabolic cost for ionic and osmotic regulation [ 29 ], it is thus presumed that growth and feed conversion might be improved if the external environment is manipulated by maintaining optimum salinity levels in order to reduce these costs.
Growth retardation at high salinity treatments in milkfish can probably also be related to habitat preference, since the wild fry cease their pelagic mode of life and start migrating toward the estuarine environments where the salinity is lower than in the open sea.
Fish maintained at 25 ppt salinity and fed at low ration level had large accumulations of fat, as revealed by high VSI.
Low values in muscle and liver glycogen in fish at 25 ppt salinity indicate utilization by the fish thus sparing protein for accumulation. High values of muscle and carcass protein and also of fat in fish at 25 ppt salinity also lend support to these findings.Bangus bangus bangus - @fishpond in Butuan
These results are similar to those obtained on milkfish [ 25 ] and gilthead sea bream, Sparus auratus, which are euryhaline species [ 15 ]. Their studies indicated better daily growth rate and feed conversion efficiency in sea bream grown at 28 ppt salinity then at low or at high salinities. The effects of salinity are also well reflected in the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the pond water. Although no marked variations in DO concentrations were observed at the end of days.
DO concentrations deceased with increased salinity and statistically showed a significantly negative correlation with fish weight gain. Many other studies [ 31 ] also showed that fish growth is positively correlated with the trophic status of pond waters. Conclusion From aquaculture point of view, present studies have revealed that inland saline groundwater of high salinity can be profitably utilized for the culture of milkfish.
Competing Interests None declared.
Looked after the experiment, collected samples and analysed physico-chemical characteristics; SKG: Planned the experiment, arranged the basic requirements, and drafted the manuscript; AB: Carried out analysis of biological characteristics, performed statistical analysis and finalized the manuscript.
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SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP. PLS HELPP MEE!?
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