Pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti
Dec 3, Akhenaten's statues depict him as rather grotesque with an elongated head, in family relationships, a new art style, or the death of Nefertiti?. Nov 4, Egyptian relief of Akhenaten and Nefertiti holding their daughters, 14th the time shows a close family relationship, with Nefertiti, Akhenaten. Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Queen, Nefertiti, are unique spirits among the Akhenaten (Akhenaton) (ruled circa BC) resolved, while yet a boy.
The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London The Amarna Lettersa cache of diplomatic correspondence discovered in modern times at el-Amarna the modern designation of the site of Akhetatenhave provided important evidence about Akhenaten's reign and foreign policy. This correspondence comprises a priceless collection of incoming messages on clay tablets sent to Akhetaten from various subject rulers through Egyptian military outposts and from the foreign rulers recognized as "Great Kings" of the kingdom of Mitanniof Babylon, of Assyria, and of Hatti.
The governors and kings of Egypt's subject domains also wrote frequently to plead for gold from the pharaoh, and also complained that he had snubbed and cheated them. Early in his reign, Akhenaten had conflicts with Tushrattathe king of Mitanni, who had courted favor with his father against the Hittites.
Tushratta complains in numerous letters that Akhenaten had sent him gold-plated statues rather than statues made of solid gold; the statues formed part of the bride-price which Tushratta received for letting his daughter Tadukhepa marry Amenhotep III and then later marry Akhenaten.
Amarna letter EA 27 preserves a complaint by Tushratta to Akhenaten about the situation: I will give you ones made also of lapis lazuli. I will give you too, along with the statues, much additional gold and [other] goods beyond measure. Your father himself recast the statues [i]n the presence of my messengers, and he made them entirely of pure gold He showed much additional gold, which was beyond measure and which he was sending to me. He said to my messengers, 'See with your own eyes, here the statues, there much gold and goods beyond measure, which I am sending to my brother.
But my brother [i. You have sent plated ones of wood.
Nor have you sent me the goods that your father was going to send me, but you have reduced [them] greatly. Yet there is nothing I know of in which I have failed my brother. Any day that I hear the greetings of my brother, that day I make a festive occasion May my brother send me much gold.
Akhenaten and Nefertiti
In my brother's country gold is as plentiful as dust. May my brother cause me no distress. May he send me much gold in order that my brother [with the gold and m]any [good]s may honor me. While Akhenaten was certainly not a close friend of Tushratta, he was evidently concerned at the expanding power of the Hittite Empire under its powerful ruler Suppiluliuma I. A successful Hittite attack on Mitanni and its ruler Tushratta would have disrupted the entire international balance of power in the Ancient Middle East at a time when Egypt had made peace with Mitanni; this would cause some of Egypt's vassals to switch their allegiances to the Hittites, as time would prove.
A group of Egypt's allies who attempted to rebel against the Hittites were captured, and wrote letters begging Akhenaten for troops, but he did not respond to most of their pleas.
Akhenaten - Wikipedia
In the damaged tomb TT of the royal butler Parenneferthe new king Amenhotep IV is accompanied by a royal woman, and this lady is thought to be an early depiction of Nefertiti. The king and queen are shown worshiping the Aten. In the tomb of the vizier RamoseNefertiti is shown standing behind Amenhotep IV in the Window of Appearance during the reward ceremony for the vizier. One of the structures, the Mansion of the Benben hwt-ben-benwas dedicated to Nefertiti. She is depicted with her daughter Meritaten and in some scenes the princess Meketaten participates as well.
In scenes found on the talatatNefertiti appears almost twice as often as her husband.
She is shown appearing behind her husband the Pharaoh in offering scenes in the role of the queen supporting her husband, but she is also depicted in scenes that would have normally been the prerogative of the king.
She is shown smiting the enemy, and captive enemies decorate her throne. In his fifth year, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenatenand Nefertiti was henceforth known as Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti.
The name change was a sign of the ever-increasing importance of the cult of the Aten.
It changed Egypt's religion from a polytheistic religion to a religion which may have been better described as a monolatry the depiction of a single god as an object for worship or henotheism one god, who is not the only god.
The new city contained several large open-air temples dedicated to the Aten. Nefertiti and her family would have resided in the Great Royal Palace in the centre of the city and possibly at the Northern Palace as well.
Nefertiti and the rest of the royal family feature prominently in the scenes at the palaces and in the tombs of the nobles.
Nefertiti's steward during this time was an official named Meryre II. He would have been in charge of running her household.
The people of Kharu the north and Kush the south are shown bringing gifts of gold and precious items to Akhenaten and Nefertiti. In the tomb of Meryre IINefertiti's steward, the royal couple is shown seated in a kiosk with their six daughters in attendance. Two representations of Nefertiti that were excavated by Flinders Petrie appear to show Nefertiti in the middle to later part of Akhenaten's reign 'after the exaggerated style of the early years had relaxed somewhat'.
Another is a small inlay head Petrie Museum Number UC modeled from reddish-brown quartzite that was clearly intended to fit into a larger composition.Akhenaten and Nefertiti Halo
Meketaten may have died in year 13 or Nefertiti, Akhenaten, and three princesses are shown mourning her. Neferneferuaten Many scholars believe Nefertiti had a role elevated from that of Great Royal Wifeand was promoted to co-regent by her husband Pharaoh Akhenaten before his death. It is also possible that, in a similar fashion to Hatshepsut, Nefertiti disguised herself as a male and assumed the male alter-ego of Smenkhkare ; in this instance she could have elevated her daughter Meritaten to the role of Great Royal Wife.
If Nefertiti did rule Egypt as Pharaoh, it has been theorized that she would have attempted damage control and may have re-instated the Ancient Egyptian religion and the Amun priests, and had Tutankhamun raised in with the traditional gods. Zahi Hawass theorized that Nefertiti returned to Thebes from Amarna to rule as Pharaoh, based on ushabti and other feminine evidence of a female Pharaoh found in Tutankhamun's tombas well as evidence of Nefertiti smiting Egypt's enemies which was a duty reserved to kings.
Amarna succession Nefertiti worshipping the Aten.
She is given the title of Mistress of the Two Lands. On display at the Ashmolean MuseumOxford. Old theories[ edit ] Fragment with cartouche of Akhenaten, which is followed by epithet Great in his Lifespan and the title of Nefertiti Great King's Wife. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London Pre Egyptological theories thought that Nefertiti vanished from the historical record around Year 12 of Akhenaten's reign, with no word of her thereafter.
Explanations included a sudden death, by a plague that was sweeping through the city, or some other natural death. This theory was based on the discovery of several ushabti fragments inscribed for Nefertiti now located in the Louvre and Brooklyn Museums. A previous theory, that she fell into disgrace, was discredited when deliberate erasures of monuments belonging to a queen of Akhenaten were shown to refer to Kiya instead.
By the twelfth year of his reign, there is evidence she may have been elevated to the status of co-regent: It is possible Nefertiti is the ruler named Neferneferuaten. Some theories believe that Nefertiti was still alive and held influence on the younger royals. If this is the case, that influence and presumably Nefertiti's own life would have ended by year 3 of Tutankhaten's reign BC. In that year, Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun.
This is evidence of his return to the official worship of Amunand abandonment of Amarna to return the capital to Thebes. This inscription offers incontrovertible evidence that both Akhenaten and Nefertiti were still alive in the 16th year of his i.
Akhenaten's reign and, more importantly, that they were still holding the same positions as at the start of their reign. This makes it necessary to rethink the final years of the Amarna Period. This means that Nefertiti was alive in the second to last year of Akhenaten's reign, this pharaoh's final year was his Year 17 and demonstrates that Akhenaten still ruled alone, with his wife by his side. Therefore, the rule of the female Amarna pharaoh known as Neferneferuaten must be placed between the death of Akhenaten and the accession of Tutankhamun.
This female pharaoh used the epithet 'Effective for her husband' in one of her cartouches,  which means she was either Nefertiti or her daughter Meritaten who was married to king Smenkhkare. Burial[ edit ] Limestone trial piece showing head of Nefertiti.