Agrippina - Wikireedia
Whilst Agrippina succeeded in seducing Claudius into marriage, the laws at the . she succeeded when Claudius named him 'Princeps Juventutis,' the prince of . Marriage to Passienus; Claudius the Emperor; The Role of Messalina .. A link with a Julian princess such as Agrippina would do him no harm. Livilia and Agrippina were accused of a lesbian relationship and exiled to After the execution of Messalina, Claudius had vowed never to well to strengthen himself with a young prince who could share his cares with him.
It is likely she was the one who commissioned the Great Cameo of France. Her sons were the logical choice, because they were the sons of Germanicus and Tiberius' grandsons were too young. Nero was becoming popular in the Senate due in part, Tacitus says, to his resemblance with his father.
The rise of her children was threatening to Sejanus' position. Resultantly, Sejanus began spreading rumors about Agrippina in the imperial court. The coming years were marked with increasing hostility between Sejanus and Agrippina and her sons. This effectively caused factions to rise in the aristocracy between her family and Sejanus.
Tiberius was not happy with this and he voiced his displeasure in the Senate. In addition, he questioned the priests of the Palatine. Some of the priests who offered the prayers were relatives of Agrippina and Germanicus. This made Tiberius suspicious of her and marked a change in his attitude toward her and her older sons, but not Caligula.
Livilla was a niece of the emperor, which would have made him a member of the imperial family. While this did make his ambitions clear, his request was denied. The loss may have been huge for Sejanus had the dissensions in the imperial household not been deteriorating.
Relations were so bad that Agrippina refused to eat at Tiberius' dinner parties for fear of being poisoned. She also asked Tiberius if she could be allowed to remarry, which he also refused. By refusing Sejanus' request, Tiberius made it clear he was content with the children of Germanicus and his own grandchildren being his successors.
Had Sejanus married Livilla, their children would have provided another line of possible successors. The implication of Agrippina's request was that she needed a man from outside the imperial family to serve as protector and step-father of possible imperial heirs, a powerful position.
It was also an implied reprimand: Tiberius was meant to be the guardian of the imperial family. He was faced with a conflict between his family and his friend. His solution was surprising. He cut himself off from the factions altogether and abandoned politics.
He left Rome in the care of Sejanus. This allowed Sejanus to freely attack his rivals. Many of her friends and associates were subsequently accused of maiestas "treason" by the growing number of accusers.
It was also common to see charges of sexual misconduct and corruption. In AD 27, Agrippina found herself placed under house arrest in her suburban villa outside Herculaneum. At that time, Clementia was considered a virtue of the ruling class, for only the powerful could give clemency. The altar of Amicitia was flanked by statues of Sejanus and Tiberius. By this time, his association with Tiberius was such that there were those in Roman society who erected statues in his honor and gave prayers and sacrifices in his honor.
Sejanus' birthday was honored as if he were a member of the imperial family.
According to Richard Alston, "Sejanus' association with Tiberius must have at least indicated to the people that he would be further elevated.
Tacitus reports a letter being sent to the Senate from Tiberius denouncing Agrippina for her arrogance and prideful attitude, and Nero for engaging in shameful sexual activities. The Senate would not begin highly unpopular prosecutions against her or her son until it received clear instructions from Tiberius to do so. Despite public outcry, Agrippina and Nero were declared public enemies hostes following a repeat of the accusations by the emperor.
They were both exiled; Nero to Pontia where he was killed or encouraged to commit suicide in AD 31, and Agrippina to the island of Pandateria the same place her mother was exiled to. She would remain on the island until her death in AD Accounts of her death vary. She is said to have died from starvation, but it is not certain whether or not it was self-imposed. Tacitus says food was withheld from her in an effort to make her death seem like a suicide.
Royal CollectionWindsor Castle. Sejanus remained powerful until his sudden downfall and summary execution in October AD 31, just after the death of Nero, the exact cause for which remains unclear. Alston suggests that Sejanus may have been acting in Tiberius' favor to remove Germanicus' family from power, noting that Agrippina and Nero's brother Drusus were left in exile even after Sejanus' death. Drusus the Younger's son Tiberius Gemellus was summoned to Capri by his father Tiberius, where he and Caligula were made joint-heirs.
When Caligula assumed power he made Gemellus his adopted son, but Caligula soon had Gemellus killed for plotting against him. He went out to the islands of Pontia and Pandateria in order to recover the remains of Agrippina and Nero.
It was not easy to recover Nero's bones as they were scattered and buried. Moreover, he had a stormy passage; however, the difficulty in his task made his devotion seem even greater. Alexis Dawson in her article What Ever Happened to Lady Agrippina  accuses Tacitus of not letting the facts get in the way of a good story.
It's true that it is a fascinating story, twisting and turning upon every fate.
To summarize,it goes something like this. After Agrippina's failed coup attempt, Nero throws a party for her The feast of Minerva and sends her on her way in the evening on a booby-trapped boat. The ceiling in her cabin is designed to cave in and being lined with lead it will, it is hoped, crush her and sink the boat.
However, the falling ceiling fails to crush her as the couch breaks its fall. Some of the crew are in on the ruse and proceed to scupper the boat. Agrippina manages to swim out of the boat and then too safety on her island retreat at Bauli suffering only a shoulder wound. Various people on the shore then come to her rescue but she tells them to tell Nero not to worry and not to send help. Agrippina is not dull and she has figured out who is behind the plot. Despite her entreaties, Nero dispatches Anicetus and some soldiers who turn up at her house and kill her.
Of this account Dawson asserts that from beginning to end [they] are a farrago of lies and absurdities and she accuses Tacitus of moving around events to suit his narrative and create a compelling motive.
The way that Tacitus tells it, Nero's mistress Poppaea Sabina and Otho 's wife was begging him to marry her but Agrippina stood in the way.
The concept here is that Poppaea talked Nero into murdering Agrippina, marry her and produce an heir.
Agrippina the Elder - Wikipedia
This indeed did happen but it was in AD62, three years after Agrippina's death. Unfortunately the baby survived only a few months. Suetonius, she believes, is a little more believable by setting the action in her country estate but finds the method of murder, a collapsing roof, risible. It is also thought unlikely that Poppaea would have been so forward with her plans when she was still married to Otho. However, once Otho is out the way governing Lusitania this plan take on a lot more credence Alternatively, it was possible that she was traveling to the festival and conspiring with Otho to depose Nero when her shipped was accidentally rammed.
As a back up plan Agerinus was sent to stab Nero but failed. She swam back to her estate and hearing news of the botched assassination attempt she took her own life before she could be arrested.
Although there are holes in Tacitus' account especially the role of Poppaea and the collapsing roof does sound like dramatic license, it is still possible that the events did take place but were a little more prosaic.
Perhaps Nero was planning to murder her and was using the festival as cover. Perhaps her boat was accidentally rammed and she swam back to shore. And perhaps, upon Nero hearing intelligence of the event, hastily devised plan B and had Anicetus kill her whilst there was still confusion over the chronology of events. Conclusions Was Agrippina a power hungry, Livia wannabe or just a strong woman who has been unfairly vilified misogynistic male historians?
She had suffered at the hands of her brother Caligula, legitimately or otherwise we cannot know for sure. She taunted Nero with his relationship with Acte, his marriage to Octavia and his dependence on his mother.
Significantly, Nero could not call on the Praetorian guard who remained loyal to Agrippina. The plan was to build a collapsible boat which would break up and hurl her into the lake where she would drown.
The plan backfired and Agrippina swam to safety. Charge leveled at Agrippina that she wanted the allegiance of the guard and to be co-ruler — trying to find a plausible motive. He did not marry her for another three years so this prompts doubts on this motive Method: Agrippina was assassinated in her room by a group of men led by Anicetus, sent by Nero.
Tacitus records that Nero justified his actions to the Senate by portraying his mother as a threat to himself and the people of Rome. Evaluation Impact and influence on her time Greatest influence evident in her relationship with highly prominent people in Roman history: Gaius, Claudius and Nero Relationship with freedmen She becomes arguably the 2nd most powerful individual in the empire despite holding no official political status.
Overtime representations have altered from the negative portrayal of ancient sources, to the re-evaluations of modern sources which reveal a politically astute woman who undoubtedly used her considerable talents to fulfill her ambitions, and in so doing she contributed to the strength and stability of the regime.
To draw political power into her own hands To advance her son Nero to the Principate To remove those who stood in her way Assessment of her life and career Ancient written sources, representing exclusively male perspectives, present her as a wicked, scheming mother, prepared to go to any lengths for her son; as a seductress using her feminine wiles to have her way; and as a violent and intimidating woman who eliminated anyone who got in that way.
The modern scholar, Anthony Barrett, suggest that it may be time for a more balanced assessment of Agrippina: No woman in the dynasties that followed would ever again have the prominence and the power that Agrippina had known.
Still prominent in modern society: The opera, Agrippina, by Handel was first performed in Venice in Ancient and modern images and interpretations of Agrippina the Younger Ancient 2 Strands: The public image in archaeology and what this reveals about her — how politics wanted to present her and how she wanted to present herself.
How Ancient Historians project her Tacitus, Suetonius and Dio Cassius dominate representation of Agrippina and are uniformly hostile to her. Gemma Claudia cameo she is drawing attention to her lineage — strengthening her claim to power. Modern Some modern scholars writing about Agrippina have followed the negative literary tradition — particularly that of Tacitus — and have produced a portrait little different from the ancient tradition.
More recent modern studies have adopted a critical appraisal of Tacitus. Other historians like Ginsburg concentrated on analysing the representations of Agrippina, and other Julio-Claudian women, in coins, statuary and cameos.
Wood examines the increasingly bold representations of women of the family in public art. Their representation reflects the increasing need to emphasise bloodlines and distinguished decent. Major impact on determining succession. She succeeded in promoting Nero as the next emperor through his image, education and titles while simultaneously crushing Britannicus.
Impact on the reign of Nero: Smaller influence than under Claudius.
Seneca worked hard to limit her role and Nero gradually tired of an interfering mother. People close to Agrippina, such as Pallas, were removed from office. She was ultimately murdered. Impact on the reign of Gaius Of limited significance — as his sister, she shared various honours early in the reign and rumour had it that they committed incest.
Her alleged involvement in the conspiracy led to her exile from Rome. She was able to remove political and personal rivals Her powers of patronage allowed her clients to promote the interest of family members and friends. Ultimately, she came as close to a woman could come to actually exercising power. Loves gossip and willing to include anything he has heard about her whether or not he is able to verify the stories did not concern his historical method.
Tacitus had no love of the empire and his republican sentiments drove him to paint the empire in a negative light. Her gender was certainly an issue. Women were not expected to be involved in politics. However, one could argue that any political figure who rises to the top must be ruthless, ambitious, determined and manipulative. Impact of Agrippina on the Governance of Rome: She secured the loyalty of the Praetorian Guard. She achieved this, not only by having Burrus appointed prefect, but by also determining who would be appointed in the ranks of the lower offices.
The removal of rivals did not cease during her time. Agrippina realised that an angry and sullen senate could cause major problems for her husband. She encouraged cooperation and during her time, the senate worked constructively with the regime. There is little physical memory of Agrippina beyond representations on coins, the occasional cameo, statues and the occasional relief such as the Sebasteion at Aphrodisias.
No political groups were formed to resurrect her reputation after her death.
Subsequent emperors, such as Vespasian AD made no efforts to commemorate her life and achievements. Roman writers merely succeeded in blackening her name. The only evidence we have of Agrippina being remembered can be found during the reign of Trajan AD The next sculpted appearance of Agrippina came in a relief on a fountain built in the German city of Cologne. The fountain was restored in She failed to break down the staunchly conservative patriarchal attitudes of her contemporaries for whom politics was no place for a woman.
It would be over years before a woman would again attempt to play a key role in Roman political life. Physical Interpretation of Agrippina the Younger: Visual representations tend to depict a positively demure, matronly and indeed pious female in contrast to the immoral, vicious woman of the ancient writers Figure The relief in Figure The toga-clad figure on the right of this relief represents the senate and people of Rome crowning Claudius.
This would seem to suggest an increase in her power and influence has occurred. Written interpretation of Agrippina the Younger: Suetonius enjoys the gossip of incest and violence attributed to her, but his account lacks the malice of the other two.
Up to this time, the writing of ancient history remained very much the reserve of middle-aged men who usually did not question the male-dominated, patriarchal nature of their own times. Thus, they would not be inclined to question a similar set of values from early imperial Rome. Notable amongst these have been the writing of feminist history and the appearance of gender studies. This has led to historians approaching a figure like Agrippina from a different perspective.
In fact, a close examination of the numismatic and statuary evidence suggests a figure quite different to that presented by Tacitus and Suetonius: A traditional Roman matron and priestess An icon of domestic correctness, moral uprightness and public piety. Though the characters are historical, this is an amusing farce which attempts to comment on contemporary politics rather than reflect the realities of early imperial Rome.
Agrippina the Elder
Even so, Agrippina is presented as an unscrupulous schemer. This film does no seek to take the story seriously ; it is a comedy in which everybody is trying to kill everybody else. This covered the years AD ,and attempted to give a sweeping view of Rome and the rise of Christianity at the time.